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春江潮水连海平,海上明月共潮生。
滟滟随波千万里,何处春江无月明!
江流宛转绕芳甸,月照花林皆似霰。
空里流霜不觉飞,汀上白沙看不见。
江天一色无纤尘,皎皎空中孤月轮。
江畔何人初见月?江月何年初照人?
人生代代无穷已,江月年年望相似。(望相似 一作:只相似)
不知江月待何人,但见长江送流水。
白云一片去悠悠,青枫浦上不胜愁。
谁家今夜扁舟子?何处相思明月楼?
可怜楼上月徘徊,应照离人妆镜台。(徘徊 一作:裴回)
玉户帘中卷不去,捣衣砧上拂还来。
此时相望不相闻,愿逐月华流照君。
鸿雁长飞光不度,鱼龙潜跃水成文。
昨夜闲潭梦落花,可怜春半不还家。
江水流春去欲尽,江潭落月复西斜。
斜月沉沉藏海雾,碣石潇湘无限路。
不知乘月几人归,落月摇情满江树。(落月 一作:落花)

1、选词填空:三步走
第一步:给选项标注词性,一词多词性,标注多个词性;
第二步:预判空格词性;
第三步:结合词性和上下文,进行“拼图”游戏。

从特征最明显的副词(-ly结尾)开始填,用过的词用笔划掉。
选词填空仅仅考察四大词性:名词、动词、形容词、副词,一般副词只有2-3空;形容词2-5空。

2、长篇匹配:一定要先题干,后文章,切忌通读和翻译
长篇匹配考查大家在大量信息中快速抓取信息的能力。
最快速有效的方法就是:带着读题干时标记出的大写字母、带有连字符等的特殊符号、名词及名词短语、形容词及形容词短语等,回到原文中去匹配。
题干中划出的关键词越多,段落原文中与题干关键词匹配度越高,可判定答案就是该段落。

3、仔细阅读:考前多进行计时训练
仔细阅读同长篇匹配一样,先读题干,后看文章,找到定位段或定位句后,再将该段或该句与选项进行比对。
另外,值得注意的是:务必要在考前多多进行计时训练,每篇文章控制在5-8分钟。此时做对的题目数,才是大家在考场的真实水平。

四级选词填空必考高频词Top5

average adj. 一般的; 通常的; 平均的;
常考结构:
the average … of
如:The average age of the students is 19.
学生的平均年龄是19岁。
on average 按平均数计算
especially adv. 特别; 格外; 尤其; 主要;
考试时,这个空前面一般是逗号。
如:Millions of wild flowers colour the valleys, especially in April and May.
漫山遍野的野花点缀着山谷,特别是每到四月和五月的时候。

potential adj. 有潜力的, 潜在的, 可能的
常考搭配:
the potential for sth. 某事发生的潜在性; 可能性

total

  1. 总数, 合计, 全体;adj. 总计的, 全体的,
    常考搭配:

in total 总共,共计
maintain v. 维持; 保持; 维修, 保养
常与以下词搭配使用:
maintain friendly relations, contacts, etc (with sb)
(与某人)保持友好关系﹑ 接触等

六级选词填空必考高频词Top 3

eventually

  1. 终于,最后,等于in the end
    常考用法:

常放在句子的开头,逗号跟后面的句子隔开。也灵活放在句首或动词前等位置。
如:Eventually, the army caught up with him in Latvia.
最后,军队在拉脱维亚抓住了他。
It might take him ages but he'll do it eventually.
尽管要耗费他数年时间,他最后还是做到了。

impact
n./v. 影响,作用,冲击
常考搭配:
impact on/upon sb./ sth. 对某人[某事物]的强烈的印象或巨大的影响
如:They say they expect the meeting to have a marked impact on the future of the country.
他说他们希望这次会议能对国家的将来产生深远的影响。

benefits
n.益处;救济(保险)金vt.有益于vi.得益
常考搭配:
the benefitofsth.:某事/物的好处
benefitfrom:得益于
如:I have benefited greatly from her wisdom.
她的睿智让我受益匪浅。
benefit to:对……有益
Knowledge is benefit to us. 知识对大有益处。
to one’s benefit:对某人有益,有帮助

序(方法)

 英语是你生活的必需,而不是为了考试。那么然后要建立一个小小的英语环境。

首先下载“龙卷风网络收音机”免费软件,安装后就可以收听VOA,BBC等几百个英语电台的英语节目了。如果你的英语发音特别不准的话,你可以先从VOA的慢速英语来练习口语的正确发音。(听)
有了这个环境,我们开始解决第一个问题,记忆单词——这是一切的基础。学英语首先要学会正确的发音。新东方的4+1课堂的语音语调,美国英语班,李阳的《疯狂英语》教材,郭锐峰的ASAP英语教材,邱政政的《TOEFL新听力》一书都可以很好的解决这个问题。(发音)
词根词缀记忆法,刘仁的《十天突破雅思真题词汇》是方法学讲的最好的,刘毅的《英文字根字典》是拆分最好的,蒋争的《英语词汇的奥秘》是分类最好的,朗文词典第三版。(记忆单词)
关于通过看电影学英语的方法,新东方的俞敏洪,杜伟老师建议,根据你的实际能力,先看2~3遍没有字幕的,然后再看一遍有字幕的,如果还搞不定,下载该电影的剧本,把剧本过一遍,先把剧本搞定(这已经是阅读问题了),然后再看一遍有英文字幕的,保证看着字幕理解是没有问题的。
口语往往是衡量一个人英语水平的标准,可以根据走遍美国的磁带或者VOA的Special English进行语音语调的模仿。要求你大声的朗读,坚持背诵(reciting)。语言看懂了不是你的,背下来才是你的,背下来再说出来才真正是你的。在口语的发音方面,李阳疯狂英语的方法很值得推荐。针对中国人英语发音的缺点,李阳总结了五个发音秘诀:
双元音和长元音发音要饱满
I made a terrible mistake
短元音收小腹,短促有力
let‘s get together again soon
great minds think alike
I am so prode of you
Go Home
Sweat Dream
连读
I am working on it
I will think it over
省略
I don”t know what to do
咬舌头
3333
It’s the same thing
精确地发音有助于你正确的表达你的思想不被误解,例如下面的单词如果你发音不准的话,很有可能造成误会:
bad [i:] bed
beach bitch *
sheet shit
fool full
这是英语播音员常使用的方法。首先要保证的是,你的发音是要正确的。然后先做热身,尽最大可能噘嘴,发“屋”的音,然后尽最大可能咧嘴,发“一”的音,然后再噘嘴发“屋”的音,再转成咧嘴的“一”音。然后快速的转换,知道两腮酸痛为止。然后双手轻拍双颊,做一下简单的放松。接着找一份阅读材料来阅读。但是要注意,读的时候要咬住牙齿不要分开,然后尽量正确的发音,把这篇短文度2遍。你会觉得这么做很难受,本来发音就不准,现在更没谱了。没关系,当你觉得两腮酸痛的时候,张开嘴,以正常的方式再朗读刚才的短文,你就会发现,你的发音已经有质的突破了,元音自然就饱满了,嘴自然就张开了,自己会明显的感觉到发音到位了。(发音)

想学基础英语就选《新概念》,想学生活英语就选《走遍美国》

总结:学好实用英语(不是应试)的一些方法,总结如下:
1.不要浪费时间在选择题和枯燥的背单词上
2.多多阅读英文报刊,网站,或是看英文肥皂剧,电影
3.听VOA,BBC
4.查单词用英英字典
5.看DVD电影,要看不带字幕的,然后再看带字幕,实在还是没看懂,就下剧本研究,研究完毕再次看一边电影(一定要不带字幕,。练习听力~~)
6.看原版英文小说

四级

四级考试中常见的考察词汇的题型:
I 押韵题型(押头韵、押尾韵);
答案总在相似中,如果有三个一样,基本上就在其中了。

  1. The rain was heavy and A the land was flooded.
    A consequently B continuously C constantly D consistently

continue v. 继续,连续; continually adv. 时断时续地; continuously adv. 连续不断地。
说不停的咳嗽时,continually是间歇的时断时续的咳嗽,continuously是一直不停的咳嗽。
consequently adv. 因此,所以;(heavy rain大雨, light rain小雨)
constantly adv. 始终如一地,连续发生地;constant temperature 恒温
consistently adv. 一贯地,一致地; consistent adj. consistent policy 一贯的政策。

  1. I hate people who C the end of a film that you haven't seen before.
    A revise B rewrite C reveal D reverse

rewrite v. 重写,改写; revise vt. 修改,修正; reveal vt. 揭示,揭露;
reverse vt. 颠倒,使反转,使反向。(vers是词根,表示转动;re是前缀,表示向相反方向)

  1. There were no tickets D for Friday’s performance.
    A preferable B considerable C possible D available

performance n. 表演,演出,演奏; perform vt. possible adj. 可能的
动词后加able构成形容词通常表示“可…的” read -> readable accept -> acceptable
consider vt. 考虑; considerable adj. (数量或尺寸)相当大(或多)的。
preferable adj. 更好的,更可取的;
available* adj. 可获得的,可利用的,可支配的。(重点词)

  1. In general, the amount that a student spends for housing should be held to one-fifth of the total D for living expenses.
    A acceptable B applicable C advisable D available

living expenses 生活费; acceptable adj. 可接受的;
apply vt. 申请,应用; applicable adj. 可应用的,适当的,合适的;
advise vt. 建议; advice n. 建议; advisable adj. 明智的,可取的。

  1. It is our A policy that we will achieve unity through peaceful means.
    A consistent B continuous C considerate D continual

achieve unity through peaceful means 通过和平手段取得统一; consistent policy 一贯政策
II 构词法题型(词的转化,合成,派生);
构成符合形容词的名词和数量词一律用单数。(见下面2个例题)

  1. Despite the wonderful acting and well-developed plot the B movie could not hold our attention.
    A three-hours B three-hour C three-hours’ D three-hour’s
  2. Professor White wrote a C report yesterday.
    A two-thousand-words B two-thousands-word

C two-thousand-word D two-thousands-words
以ly结尾的不全是副词; friendly, lonely, lovely, likely, lively adj.
考试中常见的否定前缀: un-、dis-、in-、im-

  1. B his sister, Jack is quiet and does not easily make friends with others.
    A Dislike B Unlike C Alike D Liking

like vt. 喜欢; dislike vt. 不喜欢,厌恶; unlike prep. 不象…;
alike adj. & adv. 同样的(地),相象的(地); liking n. 爱好,嗜好;
take a liking for喜欢…,对…产生好感。
III 近义词含义比较;

  1. There were some A flowers on the table.
    A artificial B unnatural C false D unreal

unreal adj. 不真实的(不是真实世界所拥有的,虚幻的); Ends justify means 不择手段;
false adj. 具有欺骗性的,假的,伪造的; false coin/passport/hair,a false tooth/false teeth
unnatural adj. 不自然的,经常用来修饰人的行为举止,表示做作的,矫揉造作的。
artificial adj. 人造人为的 artificial leg 假肢artificial leather 人造皮 genuine leather 真皮

  1. When people become unemployed, it is C which is often worse than lack of wages.
    A laziness B poverty C idleness D inability

laziness n. 懒惰; poverty n. 贫穷; poor adj. 贫穷的;
idleness n. 无事可做(中性,有时也有贬义含义); inability n. 没有能力,没有办法。

  1. A lot of ants are always invading my kitchen. They are a thorough _A_.
    A nuisance B trouble C worry D anxiety

invade 进攻,侵略; nuisance n. (具体的)令人讨厌的东西; trouble n. 烦恼,麻烦,问题;
worry n. 担心,发愁; anxiety n. 焦虑。 What a nuisance. 真是烦。
IV 搭配关系问题;
extent n. 程度; to... extent 到达…程度,在…程度之上; extent 只能和to搭配。
object vi. 反对; object + to + 动名词(动词的ing形式)。
objection n. 反对; objection + to + 动名词(动词的ing形式)。
V 形相近,意相远;

  1. In Britain, the best season of the year is probably A spring.
    A late B last C latter D later

late adj. 晚的,晚于通常时间的; late spring 晚春、暮春; last adj. 最后的,最终的;
later adj. 更晚的(late的比较级)、时间概念后一半的;只适用于表示某个世纪的后半期;
The later twentieth century. 二十世纪的后一半。
latter adj. (两者中)后者的; former adj. (两者中)前者的;

  1. Some people would like to do shopping on Sundays since they expect to pick up wonderful B in the market.
    A batteries B bargains C baskets D barrels

battery n. 电池; bargain n. 特价商品; It’s really a bargain. 你真会买东西,不是说真便宜。
basket n. 篮子; barrel n. 桶; wonderful bargain 物美价廉的商品;bargain v. 讨价还价;

  1. Remember that customers don’t D about prices in that city.
    A debate B consult C dispute D bargain

-------------------------XXXX-XX-------------------------

  1. The bridge was named A the hero who gave his life for the cause of the people.
    A after B with C by D from

cause 事业; be named after 以…的名字命名;

  1. There were no tickets D for Friday’s performance.
    A preferable B considerable C possible D available

preferable adj. 更好的,更可取的;

  1. C the Revolutionary War, the United States was an English colony.
    A Inferior to B Superior to C Prior to D Preferable to

具有比较意味的形容词只要与介词to搭配即可表示其比较级。 super- 表示在…上方,超过…
inferior adj. 低于…的,劣于…的; superior adj. 高于…的,优于…的; prior adj. 在…之前的
Revolutionary War 特指美国独立战争;second adj. 第二的(含有比较意味,也与to搭配)
He is second to none. 首屈一指,无与伦比;

  1. Cancer is second only B heart disease as a cause of death.
    A of B to C with D from
  2. It wasn't such a good dinner C she had promised us.
    A that B which C as D what

such … that … 如此… 以至于… ; sb + be + _ + sth 空格处应为能加双宾语的动词;
加双宾语的动词的用法:动词 + sb + sth(主动形式); sb + be + pp + sth(被动形式);

  1. American women were D the right to vote until 1920 after many years of hard struggle. [the right to vote 选举权]
    A ignored B neglected C refused D denied

deny v. 否认,拒绝;deny sb sth 拒绝给予某人某物;

  1. They decided to chase the cow away C it did more damage.
    A unless B until C before D although
  2. B student with a little common sense should be able to answer the question.
    A Each B Any C Either D One

common sense 常识; each 这个词在英语中强调的是个体与众不同的特点;
any 这个词强调的是很多东西在一起的共性; either 两者之间任何一个;

  1. The medicine is on sale everywhere. You can get it at C chemist’s.
    A each B some C any D certain
  2. All D is a continuous supply of the basic necessities of life.
    A what is needed B for our needs C the thing needed D that is needed

当all作定语从句的先行词时,从句只能用that来引导; all that = what

  1. A with the size of the whole earth, the highest mountain does not seem high at all.
    A When compared B Compare C While comparing D Comparing

本题的关键是弄清compare与mountain的关系; when 可以直接加过去分词;
before(after) + being + 过去分词;

  1. After A for the job, you will be required to take a language test.
    A being interviewed B interviewed C interviewing D having interviewed

They lose their health to make money, and they lose their money to restore health.

  1. C she first heard of the man referred to as a specialist. [专家]
    A That was from Stephen B It was Stephen whom

C It was from Stephen that D It was Stephen that
本题重点是强调句式; 当被强调部分指人且在句子中作宾语时,其余部分可用whom引导;

  1. If these shoes are too big, ask the clerk to bring you a smaller _D_.
    A suit B set C one D pair
  2. Many new A will be opened up in the future for those with a university education.
    A opportunities B necessities C realities D probabilities
  3. He must have had an accident, or he A then.
    A would have been here B had to be here C should be here D would be here

must have + 过去分词 表示对过去行为的肯定推测;
与过去事态相反用:情态动词 + have + 过去分词 来体现虚拟语气;
must 一定,必须; needn't, don't have to 不必;

  1. You A all those calculations! We have a computer to do that sort of thing.
    A needn’t have done B must not have done

C shouldn’t have done D can not have done
should have + 过去分词 本应该,本应当; shouldn't have done本不应该,本不应当;

  1. It was very kind of you to do the washing-up, but you D it.
    A mustn’t have done B wouldn’t have done

C mightn’t have done D didn’t have to do

  1. It was essential that the applications forms C back before the deadline.
    A must be sent B would be sent C be sent D were sent

It be essential that 后面一定用虚拟语气,且句子谓语动词固定为(should) + 动词原型;
It was essential that the applications forms send back before the deadline.

  1. We D our breakfast when an old man came to the door.
    A just have had B have just had C just had D had just had

when 还可以表示①刚..就… (有动作先后关系)、②恰在此时;

  1. I had just started back for the house to change my clothes D I heard voices.
    A as B while C after D when
  2. I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave, C something occurred which attracted my attention.
    A unless B until C when D while
  3. It was essential that these application forms D back as early as possible.
    A must be sent B will be sent C are sent D be sent

第一部分.听力部分

听力技巧一:学会取舍,理解内容
听力考试中最忌讳的就是词词计较,力求听懂所有词。其实,听懂所有词首先没必要,其次也不可能。我们在日常生活中听中文时,无论听什么,注意力都不会在每一个字或词上面,而是对文段或对话内容的整体的理解上。何况我们听的是英文,在英文句子中,对不同的词本身就有弱读和重读。

听力技巧二:扫视材料,预测内容
当广播中朗读听力要求时,我们要充分利用这个时间,迅速扫视书面文字中的题干及选项,通过扫视联系上下文,有根据地预测文段发生的时间、场所、人物,并预测出谈话的大致内容。并且,在扫视中我们对提出的问题尤其要注意。这样做的结果是听录音时我们可以有的放矢,做到有备而来,心中有数。

听力技巧三:注重首句,抓住主旨
在听长文段时,由于信息多,而且听力不同于阅读,朗读速度非常快,需要我们快速做出反应,所以在听的时候就更应当注意主旨大意。在阅读中我们知道作者一般会在首句或首段道出文段的中心大意、或对所阐述内容进行概括,有些作者也会在结尾时再一次点题。文段中间部分主要是细节,或是作者为了证实自己的观点,进一步举出例证,这一部分基本上是事实或是细节。了解了这个特点后,我们在听录音材料时就可以有目的地听。如果为了解答主旨问题就要着眼于首句,如果为了回答细节问题就要注意中间部分。

听力技巧四:简单记录,便于辨认
长文段听力中细节很多,所以只靠脑子记忆确实有困难。我们在做长文段听力时可以做一些简单的记录。这种记录要非常简练,要记重要环节。如文中提及的人物、事件、时间、地点、原因、方式、程度、数字、选择等信息都非常重要。笔记要提纲挈领,达到帮助记忆、推断和答题的目的即可。记录的方法多种多样。可以使用符号、画图、缩写形式等,只要自己能辨认就可以了。

听力技巧五:连贯记忆,准确推理
听录音时,既要不断输入、理解、存贮信息,又要不打断听的过程;既要集中精力听,又要用心记;紧扣话题,把握说话者的思路,捕捉信号词,连贯记忆主要信息。听完试题后,要前后联系,利用后面听到的信息补充前面漏听的或有疑问的信息,并对听前、听中的预测和判断加以推理、分析、修正,以使理解的准确性更高。最后提醒大家,在做听力考试试题时,要消除紧张情绪,集中注意力。听力考试对我们不仅仅是听的能力的考查,同时是对我们心理素质的测验。所以在做听力题前要放松自己的情绪,以愉快轻松的状态应对考试。只要我们加强训练,训练得法,掌握一些必要的应试技巧就能够在高考听力中取得高分。

三、短对话
考查方式:一共8个短对话,每个对话一个问题。2个长对话,共7个问题。每个对话念一遍,结束之后提出问题。

1.But 题型
形式:A:……
B:……,but …….
重点听第二个说话人B说话,but 后面所说的话为重点,出题点往往在but后面。四级听力题中,But 后面的为重点的占95%,之前的为重点的占5%。

  1. 场景题
    (1) 每一类场景,常考出题思路——用于解题

(2) 线索词
场景题提问方式:
(1) what (过去,现在,将来)
(2) Where is the conversation taking place? / Where does the conversation take place?
(3) When is the conversation taking place?
(4) Who——>where (location) 问人是谁,可以从他所在的地方来判断。
各类场景(把各类场景容易出现的词给记住,选选项时往常考思路上靠)

3.重复反问题型
形式:A:……
B:……(形容词,重复A部分的话),…….
Q:……
直接把B所说的形容词加深程度的选项为正确选项。
例1:A:It’s a little bit warm out today.
B: Warm. You could fry an egg on the sidewalk.

  正确选项应是强调warm的。

例2:A: Mary sees happy with her grades.
B: Happy. She could hardly contain herself.她简直乐翻了。
正确选项应该是强调happy的。

4.态度方向题 Yes/ No?
A:讲述一个idea/opinion(一般疑问句)。
B:Yes/No,……(阐述理由)。
选项特点: 有两个两两相反的选项(另外提醒一下,在听力题四个选项中,如果有其中两个选项说的内容刚好是相反的,那么正确答案必定为其中一个)。

5.建议题
A:……trouble……(讲述一个trouble)
B1: Advice.
B2: Don’t worry. / Calm down. / Take it easy.
B: 先安慰,后给advice.

表示建议的表达方式
You should…./ shouldn’t….
You ought to….
Why not…/ why don’t…?
If I were you, I would….
How about doing…/ What about doing…?
It’s (about/high) time that …(用过去时)。

虚拟语气:
1)might have, could have, should have本应该
2)表与现在相反If I were you, I would …=You should….

语气词
1)表示糟糕的语气
It’s too bad. / It’s tough. / Oh, no. / What a pity. / Tough luck. / Uh-oh.小麻烦
2)表示惊讶的语气
Boy. / Oh, boy. / Oh, mine. / My God. / My Goodness. / WOW! 非常惊讶
3)表示赞美的语气
Wonderful. / Terrific. / My favorite. = My fav.我的最爱。 / Cool. / Super cool. 酷呆了。/Ultra cool.酷毙了。
4)表示肯定的语气
Yeah. = Yes. / You bet. / Uh-huh. / And… / I’ll say. / You said it. / You can say that again. / And how. / Isn’t it (though). / Aren’t they (though).
5)表示否定的语气
nope.(升调)=no./ But. / Are you kidding? / Are you joking? / Are you serious? / No kidding. / no joking. / Who told you that? / Says who. / Says you.
注: 长对话是短对话的扩展,所以以上技巧也基本上适合长对话。

四、短文
考查方式:一共3篇短文,10个问题。每篇短文念一遍,结束之后提出问题。
1.文章类型
(1) 介绍性
1) 讲故事。
2) 说明性——>对现实生活的影响。
(2) 讨论性 conclusion说出一个结论。
(3) 对比性my opinion.讲述我的观点。

2.解题思路
(1)结构
(2)行文
(3)思维

3.解题步骤
(1) 听之前看选项
1)看选项长短。
2)找出选项中的相同词——以便确定文章的内容和范围。
3) 找数字题——年代,时间,数目,金钱。
(2)抓两头
1)听到结尾——>回忆结尾的一两句话。
2)重复词(重复出现的词就是文章所讲述的重点内容),同时提示文章快要结束了。
3)As a result, so , therefore, thus均提示文章快要结束了。
(3)中间抓小词
1)要牢记以下七个小词:
first, most , because出现,99%会出考题。
only, just也会出考题。
but, however也会出考题。
2)常考的逻辑关系:
并列:and
因果:because
转折:but , however
递进:the more ,the more
让步:despite, although, though
(4)补救措施
如果没听清楚文章内容,就必须听清楚题目问什么,然后用common sense常识来判断正误

4.题型
(1)主观态度题:讲facts,选正态度(就是说,选一个积极的,赞扬的,好的态度)。
What’s the speaker’s attitude toward sth?
What’s the speaker’s impression of sth?
主观态度题常常不会考太过细致的选项(就是说,说得太精确的选项一般都是用来迷惑人的)。
(2)中心思想题
What’s the passage mainly talking about?
What’s the main idea of this passage?
What’s the topic of this passage?
(3)paraphrase替换题
1)词组与词的替换
cancel= call off
late/delay=behind schedule
2)词与词的替换
a.同义词
interesting =stimulating =fascinating =exciting
b.反义词

五、复合式听写
考查方式:一篇文章一共10个空,1-7空为单词听写,8-10空为句子听写。
复合式听写历来是考生们最头疼的四级“绝杀”。因为完全没有选择,需要真刀真枪的写出所有答案,在过去的年份中,考生们也是能躲就躲。但是,在新四级当中,由于作为固定模式出现,复合式听写将永恒存在。十题中,前七空需要写出七个单词,实际上,这些单词中大部分都属于能够听懂,但是容易写错的单词。所以,平时的功夫就很重要了。在此建议考生,对于那些经常出现,但是总让自己的拼写出现困难的单词,考生们一定要多加注意。而对于分数设计较高的最后三个空,也就是长句子听写,笔者建议考生一定按照考试说明的要求,用“按照自己的话把题目要点写出来”而尽量不要“完全按照听到的写下来”,因为后者的难度实在太大,另外,也没有必要。在应用前者方法的同时,考生需要注意,在第一遍记录完大致的主语以及谓语后,第二遍时,请一定注意听完,在脑海里稍微用自己的思路组织一下,再动笔进行书写。因为只有这样,才能够按照“由长到短,由难到易”的方向进行长句的转化。
下面是答题顺序及技巧:

1听之前(pre-listening)
(1) 对全文进行全局性预览:尤其是第一句(topic)和最后一句(conclusion)。
(2) 观察空格前后的特殊现象,判断词性,单复数,时态语态。

2听之时(while-listening)
原则:精听,速记,以听为主,以记为辅。

3如何速记
(1) 省略虚词如:如冠词,助动词等。
(2)遇到词组记每个单词首字母如 break down 就记作B D ,但一定要自己看得懂的。
(3)长单词记前三个字母 如:experience 就记作 exp。
(4) 符号记忆 如:more than 就记作”>” less than 记作 “<” equal to 记作 “=”等等。
(5) 混合记忆 就是把上面几种方法混合起来用,还可以夹杂中文字等等。
(6) 随便记忆 如果实在一时想不出是什么词,就用拼音,音标或者读音相近的词先把他记下来。总之就是不管对错,先把大致读音记下来再说,然后等有时间再慢慢研究。
(7)无论采取何种记录方法最重要的原则是记得自己看得懂,待会能很方便的回想和复原出来。不要记得到时候自己也想不起来是什么东西。这就需要平时自己多联系,得出一套属于自己的速记方法。

4听之后(after – listening)
全面检查和补全前面记录下的东西。
(1) 检查漏词
a 检查漏掉的:介词(in on at ……),冠词(a an the),代词( it this that …… )。
b 漏词缀:漏掉单词前缀, 漏掉非谓语形式(“ing”……),漏掉过去时态(最容易出错的是以下四个短语 decided to / surprised to / learned to / started to)。
(2) 检查错词
a 长单词容易发生拼写错误,要仔细检查一遍。
b 短单词容易和同音异义词混淆,检查时要和上下文连起来看看意思是不是对。
(3) 检查大小写
人名、地名、国家名、时间名(月份什么)、节日名、书名、文件名、商标名、历史事件名、 宗教名等首字都要大写;句首单词首字母也要大写。
(4) 检查名词单复数、形容词、副词比较级最高级、动词事态、语态

六、短对话听力的一些原则
1.推理原则:一般需对对话进行推理,故直接在对话中听到的一般不是正确答 案。
2. 挫折原则:通常要办的事情都是不顺利的(如买东西买不到,订房间客满等)。
3. 男女原则:一般男生比较衰,女生比较牛。男生提出的观点女生都是不同意或有不同看法的,反之女生提出的观点男生都是同意和赞赏的。
男生的特征:脏、乱、差、浪费、穷、小气、不良习惯、迟钝、不顾家
女生的特征:爱干净、节约、富有、好学、能干、聪明、大度、耐心、恋家、除数理化外成绩都很好
4. 父母一般只有一个作用教育子女好好学习
5. 除了父母教育子女外,家里(包括朋友家,阿姨家等等)发生的事情一般是不考的,故遇到地点推测题类似 at home / at Mary’s home之类的选项一般都是不对的。
6. 四级听力短对话只考日常生活学习中遇得到事情,问题,故如果选项中出现一些日常生活中不太可能发生或很少发生的事情一般不会是正确选项。

七、 短对话听力十大场景及一般思路
1. 借车:车一般是借不到的
2. 吃:匹萨,海鲜吃了一般会有不适反应,“派”一般比较好吃
3. 考试:作业、论文一般比较难,或须要熬夜,教授一般比较严厉,选修课较难较多
4. 坐车(飞机、轮船):一般都需要等
5. 事故(灾难):光明原则,一般不会死人
6. 听讲座:题目一般是比较有趣丰富的,内容一般是比较复杂难懂的
7. 论文:一般需要修改(polish)或重写(rewrite)
8. 休闲:男生一般喜欢待在家里看TV或者看moive,女生一般喜欢高雅艺术如theater
9. 医院:需要预约make an appointment
10.买票:基本上是买不到的

八、短对话的常见场景
(一).社会生活类
1、购物消费:
mall 购物中心; convenience store 便利店
chain store 连锁店; supermarket 超市
department store 百货商店; grocery 杂货店
customer 顾客; complaint 投诉;
display 展示 counter 柜台;
balance 余额,结余; budget 预算
catalog 商品目录; famous brands 名牌;
bargain 讨价还价(v.); 便宜货(n.); stationery文具
electronic products 电子产品; digital camera 数码相机;
discount 折扣; shopping list 购物清单;
receipt 收据; on sale 出售,上市;
sell out 售完; out of stock 没货,脱销;
deliver 送货

2、居家琐事:
trivial affairs 日常琐事; laundry 洗衣店
iron 烫衣服; keep an eye on sb./sth. 照料某人事
in a mess 杂乱; economical 经济的,节俭的
open an account 开户; deposit 存款;
withdraw 取钱; interest rate 利率;
property 财产; debt 债务;
pay off 还清; parcel 包裹;
zip/postal code 邮政编码

3、日常交往:
leisure time 休闲时间; call on sb. 拜访某人
drop by/round 突然造访; take a message 捎信
hospitable 好客的; hang up 挂断电话
hold on 别挂电话; operator 接线员

4、休闲娱乐:
hobby 爱好; keep pets 养宠物;
tame dog 训狗 gardening 园艺;
play chess 下象棋 TV channels 电视频道;
broadcast 广播,播放 live broadcast 现场直播;
programme 电视节目 commercial advertisement 商业广告
tennis court 网球场; performance 表演
entertainment industry娱乐业; comedy 喜剧
tragedy 悲剧; horror movie 恐怖片;
plot 情节 entertaining 有趣的,愉快的;
enthusiastic 热情的

5、外出就餐:
waiter/waitress 男女服务员; napkin 餐巾
order 点菜; tip 消费;
menu 菜单; snack 快餐
dessert 甜点; appetizer 开胃菜;
yogurt 酸奶 toast 烤面包;
junk food 垃圾食品; roast 烤肉
beef steak 牛排; rare 半熟的;
medium 中等熟的 sour/sweet/bitter/hot 酸甜苦辣
go dutch AA制; treat 款待,宴请
make a reservation 预定; have a picnic 野餐

6、住房搬家:
landlord/landlady 房东; tenant 房客
apartment/flat 公寓; residence 居住,住所
monthly rent 月租; spare rooms 空余房间
available 可利用的; accommodate 供给住宿或房间
settle 定居; downtown 市中心;
suburb 郊区 neighborhood 邻近地区;
transportation 交通 subway entrance 地铁入口;
put up with the noise 容忍噪音

7、装饰维修:
furnished 已装修的; furniture 家具
decoration 装饰; painting 画;
cupboard 衣柜 shower 淋浴;
sink 下水槽; pipe 管道;
leak 漏水 fix 维修;
install 安装; maintenance man/technician 维修工
air conditioner 空调

(二).学校生活类
1、注册:
register 注册,报到,登记; enrolment 登记入学
department 系; student ID card 学生证
recommendation letter 推荐信; application form 申请表

2、选课:
semester 学期; register for/sign up for/enroll in/take 选课
quit/drop a course 退课; earn a credit 修学分
major in 主修; required /compulsory course 必修课
optional/elective course 选修课 curriculum 课程;
linguistics 语言学; philosophy 哲学;
psychology 心理学; literature class 文学课

3、听课:
professor 教授; supervisor/advisor 导师
lecturer 讲师; tutor 家教;
dean 系主任 teaching assistant 教学助理
call the roll 点名; catch/follow 跟上
make a presentation 作陈述或介绍 confused/puzzled 迷惑不解的;
get lost 不明白 attendance 出席人数;
presence 出席 absence 缺席;
punctual 守时,准时 take notes 记笔记;
skip the class 逃课 make up…弥补(课)

4、作业:
assignment/homework 作业; experiment 实验
survey 调查; rough draft 草稿;
final draft 终稿 have one’s hands full with… 忙于做…
due 到期; deadline 最后期限;
criticism 批评 feedback 反馈

5、读书:
journal 定期刊物; magazine 杂志;
periodical 期刊; book review 书评;
editorial 社论; go through this novel 通读小说
out of stock 已脱销; out of print 已绝版
up-to-date 最近的,当代的; publisher 出版者
reference book 参考书; publication 出版,出版物;
publishing house 出版社

6、学习:
concentrate 集中精神; distraction 使人分心的事
review/revise 复习; fall behind 落后;
think much /highly of… 对…评价很高

7、考试、成绩:
mid-term exam 期中考试; final exam 期末考试
quiz 小测验; pop quiz 突击测验;
standardized tests 标准测试; national test 统考
entrance exam 入学考试; review/go over/go through 复习;
grade/score/mark 成绩; full marks 满分
passing grade 及格分; straight A’s 全得A,全优
B plus B加; B minus B减;
repeat the course 重修; repeat the year 留级

8、毕业进修:
graduation 毕业; graduate 毕业生;
post graduate 研究生; diploma 文凭;
a bachelor’s degree 学士学位; a master’s degree 硕士学位;
a doctor’s degree 博士学位; further/advanced study 进修;
study abroad 留学

9、学费及奖学金:
tuition 学费; fee 学杂费;
grant 助学金; financial aids 助学金;
scholarship 奖学金 student loan 学生助学贷款

10、课余生活:
participate in/take part in 参加; enroll in 登记
sign up for 参加(俱乐部,课程等); taste 兴趣,爱好;
run for 竞选; vote 选票
questionnaire 问卷调查; election campaign 选举活动;
the student union 学生会; chairman 主席
candidate 候选人

(三)、求职面试
1、求职面试
job hunting 找工作; want ads 招聘广告
position/post 职位; opening/vacancy 空缺
opportunity 机会; inquiry 询问;
consult 咨询 resume 简历;
application form 求职信 interview 面试;
interviewee 面试者 interviewer 面试官;
competent 胜任的 inexperienced 没有经验的;
qualification 资历 unemployment 失业;
lose one’s job 失业 full-time job 全职工作;
part-time job 兼职工作 do odd jobs 做零工;
fire/dismiss 解雇 hire/employ 雇佣;
job-hopping 跳槽 appointment 任命;
turn down 拒绝

2、工作往来:
clients 客户; secretary 秘书;
colleague 同事 superior 上司;
get along with 与…相处 appointment 约会;
confirm 确认 ask for leave 请假;
arrangement 安排 apply for a vacation申请休假;
fill in the application form 填写申请表 morning shift 早班;
night shift 夜班 shift work 倒班工作;
take over 接管,接任 in charge of 负责;
be involved in 参与 assistance/favor 帮助,协助;
negotiate 谈判 inquire 咨询;
cooperation 合作 competition 竞争;
bid 投标; contract 合同
difference 分歧; approve 同意,批准
disapprove 反对; compromise 妥协,让步
headquarter 总部; branch 分部,分公司

3、工作态度:
attitude 态度; personality 品质
active/positive 积极的; optimistic 乐观的
pessimistic 悲观的; determined 有决心的
forgetful 健忘的; diligent 勤奋的
confident 有信心的; hard-working 工作努力的
perseverance 坚持不懈; struggle 奋斗
overwork 加班; work addict 工作狂
overwhelmed 疲倦的; workload 工作负担
wear out 疲劳的; complain 抱怨
work like a horse 辛勤工作; devote oneself to sth. 致力于…

4、工作业绩:
promotion 升职; career 事业
achievement 成就; contribution 贡献
deserve 值得,应得; worthy 值得的

(四).科普知识类
1、生物,生态:
biology 生物学; cell 细胞;
protein 蛋白质 gene 基因;
inherit 遗传; survive 生存
digestive system 消化系统; adapt to 适应
ecology 生态学; soil erosion 水土流失
rare animal 珍稀动物; extinction 灭绝

2、气候:
weather forecast 天气预报; temperature 温度
Sunny/clear 晴天; cloudy 多云的
overcast 阴天的; drizzle 毛毛雨;
light rain 小雨 heavy rain 大雨;
shower 阵雨 pour/downpour 倾盆大雨;
thunderstorm 雷雨
rain cats and dogs 下倾盆大雨; blizzard 暴风雨
snowstorm 暴风雨; hail 冰雹;
windy 刮风的 breeze 微风的;
sweltering 酷热的 steamy 湿热的;
sticky 闷热的; stuffy 闷的
muggy 闷热潮湿的; chilly 严寒的
freezing 寒冷的; frigid 严寒的
severe winter 严冬; foggy/misty 有雾的
humid 湿的; humidity 湿度

3、天文地理:
astronomy 天文学; universe 宇宙
cosmos 宇宙; solar system 太阳系
solar energy 太阳能; satellite 卫星
planet 行星; comet 彗星;
telescope 望远镜 microscope 显微镜;
geology 地质学 geography 地理;
exploration 勘探 north Pole 北极;
South Pole 南极 equator 赤道;
latitude 纬度; longitude 经度
iceberg 冰山; volcano 火山;
erupt 爆发

4、现代科技:
high tech 高科技; clone 克隆
portable computer 手提电脑; Internet 因特网
websites 网址; cyber 网络;
log in/on 登陆 hacker 黑客;
computer virus 电脑病毒 chat room 聊天室;
on-line shopping 在线购物 surf on the internet 在网上冲浪;
distance learning 远程学习; fax machine 传真机;
advance technology 先进技术; printer 打印机
copying machine 复印机 photocopying machine 影印机

(五)、社会问题类
1、环境问题
environment protection 环境保护; reclaim 开垦;
deforestation; 滥砍滥伐 over-fishing 过渡捕鱼;
dump 倾倒; ecosystem 生态系统;
vegetation 植被; oxygen 氧气;
ozone layer 臭氧层; deterioration 恶化;
pollution 污染; recycle 回收再利用;
circulation 流通,循环; purify 净化;
radiation 辐射; drought 干旱;
dust-storm 沙尘暴; acid rain 酸雨;
greenhouse effects 温室效应; global warming 全球变暖;
rare 稀有的; sensitive to climate; 对气候敏感的 ;
endangered species 濒危物种; wipe out 清除,消亡;
extinction 灭绝; conservation 保护,保存;

2、移民种族:
industrial Revolution 工业革命; famine 饥饿
refugee 难民; migrate 移民;
immigration 移民; settlement 定居;
cultural conflict 文化冲突; diverse 多样的;
multiculturalism 多元化文化主义; descendant 后代,后裔;
racial segregation 种族隔离; racial discrimination 种族歧视;

3、妇女问题:
women’s liberation 妇女解放; sex discrimination/sexism性别歧视;
women’s movement 妇女运动; professional women 职业女性;
domestic violence 家庭暴力; traffic in women 贩卖妇女;
abuse 虐待 compensate 补偿;
divorce 离婚

4、政治经济:
international organizations 国际组织 non-governmental organizations 非政府组织
economic sanctions 经济制裁; economic recession 经济衰退;
economic depression 经济萧条; reform 改革;
crisis 危机; institution 机构;
alliance 联盟; cooperation 合作;
politics 政治; (anti-) dumping (反)倾销
deficit 赤字; legislation 立法;
merge 并购,合并; judicial 司法的;
listed company 上市公司; executive 行政的
subsidiary 子公司; parliament 国会;
the Congress 国会(美); bankrupt 破产;
the Secretary of State 国务卿 the State Council 国务院
break out 爆发; summit meeting 峰会;
internal affairs 内政; rebel 暴乱;
terrorism 恐怖主义; strike 罢工;
CEO (chief executive officer)首席执行官 GDP (gross domestic product)国内生产总值
GNP (gross national product) 国民生产总值

(六)、文化习俗类
1、文化艺术:
mass media 大众媒体; cartoon/animation动画片
musical 音乐片; Academy Award 金像奖
fashionable 时尚的; outmoded/outdated 过时的
popular with 流行; catch on 流行;
Yuppie 雅皮士; Hippie 嬉皮士;
classical literature 古典文学; art works 艺术作品
collected works 文集; collection 作品集,收藏品
aesthetic 美学的; graffiti 涂鸦;
oil painting 油画; sculpture 雕塑;
dignity 尊严; individual 个人的;
confrontation 冲突; offensive 冒犯的;
(musical) instrument 乐器; concert 音乐会
wind instrument 管乐; folk art 民间艺术
stringed instrument 弦乐; performance 表演;
orchestra/band 乐队; classic art 高雅艺术;

2、社会习俗:
exotic 有异域情调的; custom 风俗;
costume 服饰; proper conduct 得体的举止
good-mannered 文明的; taboo 禁忌;
ill-mannered 无教养的; behavior 行为;
blunt 唐突,直言的; practice 惯例;
tradition 传统; bridegroom/groom 新郎;
wedding ceremony 婚礼庆典; bride 新娘;
bridesmaid 伴娘; best man 伴郎;
engagement 订婚;

(七)、旅游交通类:
1、火车
track 轨道; express train 快车;
a non-stop/through train 直达火车; stopping train/slow train 慢车;
change/transfer 转车、换乘; schedule/timetable 时刻表;
car/train attendant 列车员; booking/ticket office 订票处;
information booth 问讯处; passenger 乘客
coach/carriage 车厢; sleeping car 卧车车厢
berth/bunk 铺位; restaurant/dining car 餐车;
platform ticket 站台票; one-way ticket 单程票
return/round-trip ticket 往返票 left-luggage office 行李暂存处;
check (in) luggage 托运行李; punch a ticket 剪票
refund a ticket 退票; terminal/terminus 终点站
to change trains at… 在(某地)换车 the train is due at…在(某时)到达
to break the journey 中途下车

2、汽车
commuter 通勤者; rush hour (车辆的)高峰时间
zebra 斑马线; traffic jam 交通拥挤;
jay-walker 乱穿马路的行人; handbrake手刹车;
park a car 停车; hold up 阻塞,抑制;
run a red light/jump the light 闯红灯; over taking on the inside 超车;
speeding 超速; make a wrong turn 拐错弯;
drunken drinking 酒后驾车; casualties 伤亡人数
hit-and-the-run accident 事故后驾车逃逸 one way street 单行道;
intersection 十字路口; driver’s/driving license驾驶执照;
shuttle 班车 give a ride 搭车;
fast lane 快行车道; injury 受伤;
ticket 罚单;

3、飞机
Airport 机场; declare 申报(海关、纳税)
airline 航线; customs 海关;
flight 航班; board 登机;
economy class 经济舱; checking counter 检票处
first class 头等舱; passport 护照;
business class 商务舱; visa 签证;
see off 送行; air/plane crash 空难;
departure time 起飞时间; miss flight 误机;
check in 办理登机手续; safety inspection 安检;
crew 全体乘务人员; behind schedule 晚点;
captain 机长; airsick 晕机;
pilot 飞行员; jet lag 飞机时差反应;
switch to a different flight 换乘其他航班

4、参观游览
tourist 游客; take a vacation 休假;
sightseeing 观光、游览; travel agency 旅行社;
book a room 预订房间; reception desk 接待处;
service counter 服务台; check in 住宿登记;
check out 结账离开; scenic resort 旅游胜地;
historic spots 历史名胜; landscape 风景;
fantastic scene 奇异的景象; pose 摆姿势;
beyond description 难以描述; press the shutter 按快门;
run out of film 胶卷用完了; broaden one’s horizon 开拓眼界;

(八)、医疗健康类
1、疾病和症状
Epidemic 流行病; bird flu 禽流感;
SARS 非典型性肺炎; contagion 传染;
symptom 症状; attack/fit 发作;
sneeze 打喷嚏; coughing 咳嗽;
runny nose 流鼻涕; nausea 恶心;
vomit 呕吐; diarrhea 腹泻;
stomachache 胃痛; cavity 牙洞;
toothache 牙疼; dental decay 龋齿;
allergy 过敏; fracture 骨折;
fatigue 疲劳; sore throat 嗓子疼;
have a temperature/fever 发烧;

2、医院和医生
infirmary 学校医院; clinic 诊所;
the dentist’s 牙科诊所; physician 内科医生
registration office 挂号处; surgeon 外科医生
out-patient department 门诊部; ward 病室;
in-patient department 住院部; anesthetist 麻醉师;
pharmacist 药剂师; head nurse 护士长;
doctor in charge 主治医师

3、检查和治疗
Register 挂号; make a file 建病例;
Examine 检查; take temperature 量体温;
Take blood pressure 量血压; treat 治疗;
Physical inspection 体检; cure 治愈;
Prescription 处方,药方; fill teeth 补牙;
Herb/herbal medicine 草药; drug 药;
Pill/tablet 药片,药丸; dosage 剂量;
sleeping pill/tablet;pharmacy 药房 drugstore/chemist’s shop 药店,药房;
take injection 打针; vaccinate 注射疫苗;
be in hospital 住院; be out of hospital 出院;
operation 手术; surgery 外科手术;
go for the admission procedure 办理住院手续;

4、减肥锻炼
put on weight 增加体重; overweight 超重的
aerobics 有氧健身法; lose weight 减肥;
keep-fit class 健身房; fitness center 健身中心
physical exercise 锻炼; slimming drug 减肥药;
exercise machine 健身器械; on diet 节食;
go in for physical training锻炼体魄; build up a good physique 锻炼身体;

5、不良习惯
tobacco 烟草(制品); addict 使沉溺或上瘾;
tar 焦油; nicotine 尼古丁;
lung cancer 肺癌; heavy smoker 烟瘾大的人;
give up/stop/quit smoking 戒烟; give up/stop/quit drinking 戒酒;

6、身体状况
Physical examination、health checkup 体检; be of strong physique/powerful build 体格强壮;
be in good/bad shape 身体健康/身体状况好; be as fit as a fiddle 身体非常好;
be in poor health 身体虚弱; be/feel under the weather 身体不舒服;
be out of shape 身体不好;

第二部分.四级阅读

四级文章本身的特点:
1、结构:
1)文科文章常有的一些结构

A、现象解释型(文章一开始给出一个现象然后对现象进行解释,一般都会在第一段的末句是一个问句,段末是问号。就是要我们寻找回答,问题就是一个现象,我们就要寻找解释,来做主题。)解释即为文章的主题所在。常被考到的有:现象本身;解释;作者对解释的评价。理科文章解释主题常有两种方式:1)罗列式的2)用实验来解释主题 

文中加引号的词,表明该词在原文中有特定的含义,表达并非最表面的意思
问题中出现了一开始就提到的现象时,答案通常针对文章主题。

B、问题解决方案型(文章一开始给出一个问题,对问题给出一个解决方案。典型的文章:某年的第一篇文章。问题—problem 第一问题本身考一道题,第二造成问题的原因是,第三问题的解决方案是,第四作者对解决方案的态度,正评价还是副评价,肯定还是否定。思路比较固定,只要是解决方案一般都是不行的。)
C、结论解释型(在文科文章的数量是最大的。文章一开始给出一结论,然后对结论进行解释,数量极多。)  

2)理科文章的结构

A、现象解释型(结构与文科文章不一样,理科文章首句出问号,常暗示指现象,有现象就要寻找解释。)
B、问题解决方案型(成果型在理科文章里很多,2001-6)
C、实验型文章(文科文章可以颠三倒四的把问题反复地说,理科文章一般比较客观,要说明问题一般用实验来说。)

2、体裁:
以说明和议论为主。原因:四级和四级以上的文章具有的特征——academic学术性的,学术性的文章用记叙文说不清楚,只能用说明和议论。说明文:作者没有太多的观点,只给出一些数据和事实,让你自己去推理、综合。 启发:
1)、关注重点不同。对于说明文而言注意文中的定义、概念、重要数据和细节。对于议论文而言注意作者的结论和观点。主要是看作者支持什么反对什么。

2)、文章的重心。四级文章无论说明议论,四级文章的重心一般靠前。两种模式:A、一根主线,一开始就摆出文章的主题。对一个方面进行具体论述。B、花开两朵,各表一枝。文章一开始就出现两个概念或者两个方面,文章论述两个方面一般答案里也包含两个方面。

3)、句子结构复杂
常见的难句类型:
A、 多重复合句,重点是以it为形式主语的复合句。要很开地看出重心,主要注意抓
主干和断句。(主谓宾)
B、多重并列句,一般并列句可以用and来连接,另一种是肯定否定形式的并列句,比如:not……but , not only……but also, but 和but also 后面的才是作者强调的。
C、经典被动句
D、倒装句 典型结构主要是主系表结构倒装为表系主结构。方法:第一看系动词,第二看第一个词,如果第一个词有形容词性而又不修饰别的词,就肯定是个表语。一般是为了强调表语,所以倒装。This is of great importance. 倒装为 : Of great importance is …… of great 是形容词变名词。
E、双重否定=肯定
F、比较结构 more……than 在more之后才是重点 , less……than 在than后面的是重点.
段首出现比较级一般都会出题的。
(二):
四级一般的阅读方法和做题方法概括四句话:1扫读题干关键词 2浏览原文作标记 3比较选项得答案 4迅速排除省力气 其中核心是浏览原文作标记

 可以标记的地方:1指示性的具体信息 如时间、人物、数字 2与文章结构有关的中心信息 包括:主题句 转折词(but however yet出现这几个词的时候一般都会考到)其他标记题号 

考试原则:文章首句出现定义或者概念,通常就是主题; 出现转折必会考到, 主题在末段的可能性接近于零;任何主题题型只要选项包含细节就直接错误,不管它有大多伟大 按时间顺序阐述的文章主题通常在首末段,尤其是首段 ;
细节题定为原则:细节出现多次,优先考虑首次定位;原文有个词,再在选项中弄一个与其相类似的单词作干扰选项。

作词义题的方法:根据上下文确定同义或反义的关系,两个动词分不开的时候看主语 doubt or challenge ,一般的理科文章只要作者不是骂骂咧咧的,他的口气态度一般都是客观的,出现连串数字或者年代时常被考到。
流水账文章一般不考主题,一道题答案有疑问时,找特殊位置,找特殊语言现象。这篇文章给我们的启发是文章中有些句子比其他句子要更加重要一些。重要局:有些句子常被考到位于特殊位置。主要包括三种:1)各段首句2)全文末句3)文中结论解释句 4)问句在第一段首末常有意义,与主题挂钩。其他地方的问句大都是调侃的现场不要老分析它的意思。

一个选项有毛病主要是形容、词副词在作怪。

做那种四个选项哪个是对的题目,注意:1)正确答案一般针对全文或者段落主题2)通过排除得到正确答案

细节题题型:
一、做题步骤

1、根据问题中的关键词回原文定位。关键词包括:1)一般为名词或名词词组2)优先考虑的关键词:①专有名词,包括人名和带“”的词②数字、时间③形容词和副词④比较或因果语言现象
2仔细阅读包含关键词的句子,在本句、上下句寻找线索。
3、将包含线索的句子与选项进行比较,对线索句进行同义替换的为正确答案。同义替换有三种方式:①关键词替换②正话反说③语言简化

二、按照顺序寻找答案

由于细节题的排列顺序,一般对应原文的叙述顺序,所以一般按顺序寻找答案。

三、细解题错位的做题方法

列举原则:①原文连续提3-4项叫列举 ②列举这种语言现象常与except题型相对应 ③问某一段没有提到什么,其他段落的内容通常成为正确答案。四级里分散列举比较少。  
关于实验型文章:①在实验型文章中,通常可以根据问题中的动词定位 ②答案基本上按顺序寻找。
实验型文章包括:①代表人物 ②实验目的 实验目的=主题=1。2段的目的不定式 ③实验结果 有实验结果的句子一般被考到,其他的都是小细节。实验结果一般都是以动词来体现的。实验型文章的试验目的一般相对确定,多次问试验目的一般都指向同一个结果。

四级考试中一般有五个表示试验结果的重要动词:find, show, identify, observe, notice一般看到含有这几个词的句子要注意,通常看后面有没有类似的词出现在问题中;反之,看到问题中有这几个词的时候要到文章中找这几个词,这些都是近义词。
实验型文章实验目的指向主题或目的不定式:第一段首末出现转折常与主体挂钩.文章中没有主题句时,综合各段首句,其中共有的词汇为本文的主题词。

问标题的基本思路:①寻找本文的主题词 ②注意选项范围的大小(不能过小不能过大)

问题中含有文中的主题词时,正确答案针对段落主题,在主题句中找。在四级中 when as if 这三个词,在问题中出现一个,就在原文中找没有when 就找as或者 if,条件句找条件句。
根据动词词组的副词确定意思,常见的副词有:①back 向后,阻挡 ②off 脱离③on 继续
④down 向下

(三):
文章比较难的学习方法:1、先找主题 2、学会这一类文章的看法,这类文章的共同特点是:语言难度高,背景较为复杂的文章。出题的方向有:①先看题目②抓重要和特殊语言现象③段落的论述通常从两个方面进行。

主题题型

一、有主题句
1、有主题句时,与主题句相对应的为正确答案
如何找主题句:主题句具有总结性,一般位于文中三个地方:①全文首句(出现得最多);②一段末句,一段末句出现转折或结论时常出现主题;③第二段的一、二句,二段对一段进行总结或否定时常出现主题。例如进行总结的文章;进行否定的文章; In

2、文中没有主题句时,各段首句相加,其中共有的词汇为本文的主体词,必须出现在主题题型的正确答案中。

主题词的特征有:①一般为名词或名词词组;②出现频率较高;③一般位于段落首句。

二、根据语言提示寻找主题

1、根据文章结构确定主题,常见的结构有:①结论解释型的文章,结论为主题所在。一般首句是个判断句或者有态度时就常是结论,尤其是首句之后紧跟较长的例子或细节时。

②现象解释型的文章,解释为文章主题所在。——问句出现在一段首末句,问句等于现象。回答就是主题。③问题解决方案型文章,解决方案为文章主题。2001年6月第一篇
2、文章首句中的主题名词,尤其是主语在后文被重复时,暗示首句为本文的主题句。

三、主题题型的变体
1、标题,本文最好的标题:①正确答案对应文章的主题词;②选项范围要恰如其分;2000年12月15题。
2、写过目的:①写作目的等于中心思想;②文章中谈到困难或问题,包含下列动词的选项优先考虑:warn,remind。

四、主题题型的正误选项的特征

1、正确选项必须包含文中的主题词;
2、错误选项主要有两种:①包含细节;②出现了原文中没有提到的内容。  

文章中出现两个对立观点时,作者可以明确支持其中一派;如果不明确支持其中一派,他的态度一般是折衷的。

词义题题型
一、返回原文找到被考的词或短语

二、做题方法

①根据上下文确定同义或反义关系(寻找词性和语法功能相同的词,根据他们来确定意思)
②根据词根或动词词组的副词判断意义,字面意思或大纲中的第一个意思通常不是答案

例证题题型
1、例证题的总原则:问一个例子或类比的目的或原因,答案为该例子前后总结说明性的话。

2、两种模式:①先总结,后例子答案往前找;给出例子时常有提示词:for example ,for instance;②先例子后总结答案往后找;给出总结时常用提示词:therefore thus 等结论性词汇。
3、三种情况:①全文性的例子,答案为本文的主题;②段落性的例子,答案指向段落主题句,在本段的首末句;③在没有标志词的情况下,问一个单词例证什么,通常等于问该单词在句子中的意思;01-6-29例证题和指代题一样,比较干扰选项是比较不出来的,选出正确答案了就不要看其他的选项了。对于文章写的比较郁闷,作者观点不明确的文章,作者对文中的问题一般表示关注。

因果原则:
1、隐性因果:即问题出现因果词,但原文找到的句子没有因果词,一般集中与段落的前两句;尤其是前一句是因后一句是果。

2、显性因果:①因果名词(在问题中有因果,在原文中也有因果):reason result basis ②因果动词:base on ,be due to , result from , result in ③因果连词或介词:because, with, why , for, as ④因果副词:therefore , thus ,as a result 在文章中看见因果词就要想到后面会考到;在选项中看到因果词,就要想到文中的因果现象。 

如果文章中谈一个现实问题,解决方案一般不够完美,所以涉及解决方案的选项具有以下特征才是正确的:①目前解决方案不行;②需要继续寻找解决方案。2001-6-first
实验型文章实验目的指向主题或目的不定式,对于实验性文章,实验代表人物有了,再看实验目的,然后是实验结果,凡是与这三点无关的句子都要快读。有时候有的段落没有题,没有题的段落出现在选项里常常是干扰选项。选项错误大多跟形容词和副词有关

文章的主题可以用两个方式来表达:①直接阐述作者的观点;②否定与作者相反、相对立的观点。  

推理题题型 
1、问题中有线索时,根据线索找到原文相关句,与相关句意思一致的为正确答案。所以说不管题目中有imply include infer,只要问题中有一个线索,比如:人名、地名、关键词,就拿着这些词回原文找和原句一对应,就出来答案。
2、infer题,一般对应相应段落,否则对应文章主题。 此类题目一般题干光秃秃的没有什么线索,这时我们应该看该题的位置,如果是文章开始,那就对应文章开始;出在2、3、4那就一般和234对应,最多错一个段落,否则就是对应文章主题;如果在最后的话,那优先对应文章最后。
3、推论(conclude)题: ①为第一题时,通常对应文章主题;②为2、3、4题时,基本上针对文章中间段落;③为最后一道题时,优先对应文章最后部分,有时也针对文章主题。

与主题有关的优先考虑。

第三部分.完形填空做题技巧

一、完型填空
(一)做题技巧和步骤
I.做题步骤:1、通读全文,了解文章大意;文章两种模式:总分、对比;2、初选答案(排除法、优选法);3、寻找线索;4、回头补缺;5、核实答案。
II.出题重点:
1.词语的辨析:
1)同义词; 2)反义词; 3)形近词;
注:说谎:lie lied lied lying
躺:lie lay lain lying
放置,下蛋:lay laid laid laying
2.逻辑关系:
1)列举/种属关系:
such…as; especially; in particular; specifically; for example; for instance; likely;
2)因果关系:
because (for); due to; owing to; thanks to; since; for; as; for the reason that; seeing that;
3)并列/递进:
besides; likewise; moreover; also; too; what’s more; apart from; except; furthermore;
not noly…but also….; in addition;
4)转折/让步关系:
however; but; never the less; nonetheless; whereas; still; though; although; anyhow; anyway; in any case; yet;
5)对比关系:
by contrast; in contrast; by comparison; like; as…as; on the contrary; conversely; oppositely; ….than….;
3.固定结构的识别:提高阅读的速度、对于内容有合理的预期、有利于总体把握文章:
either…or…; neither…nor…; too…to…; so…that…; not…until…; hardly…when…; no sooner…than…; not only…but also…
2.搭配:
例如:a. + n.; ad. + v. ; take advantage of….; make use of….等;
3.动词用法:
1)主谓一致; 2)时态; 3)语态; 4)非谓语动词;
4.介词用法:
1)介词与名词; 2)介词与动词; 3)介词与形容词;

第四部分.写作七类精彩句型

一、比较
1.The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.
2.The advantages of A are much greater than those of B.
3.A may be preferable to B, but A suffers from the disadvantages that...
4.It is reasonable to maintain that ...but it would be foolish to claim that...
5.For all the disadvantages, it has its compensating advantages.
6.Like anything else, it has its faults.
7.A and B has several points in common.
8.A bears some resemblances to B.
9.However, the same is not applicable to B.

  1. A and B differ in several ways.
  2. Evidently, it has both negative and positive effects.
  3. People used to think ..., but things are different now.
  4. The same is true of B.
  5. Wondering as A is ,it has its drawbacks.
  6. It is true that A ... , but the chief faults (obvious defects )are ...

二、原因
1.A number of factors are accountable for this situation.
A number of factors might contribute to (lead to )(account for ) the phenomenon(problem).

  1. The answer to this problem involves many factors.
  2. The phenomenon mainly stems from the fact that...
  3. The factors that contribute to this situation include...
  4. The change in ...largely results from the fact that...
  5. We may blame ...,but the real causes are...
  6. Part of the explanations for it is that ...
     One of the most common factors (causes ) is that ...

 Another contributing factor (cause ) is ...
 Perhaps the primary factor is that …
But the fundamental cause is that ...

三、后果

  1. It may give rise to a host of problems.
  2. The immediate result it produces is ...
  3. It will exercise a profound influence upon...
  4. Its consequence can be so great that...

四、批驳
1)It is true that ..., but one vital point is being left out.
2) There is a grain of truth in these statements, but they ignore a more important fact.
3) Some people say ..., but it does not hold water.
4) Many of us have been under the illusion that...
5) A close examination would reveal how ridiculous the statement is.
6) It makes no sense to argue for ...
7) Too much stress placed on ... may lead to ...
8) Such a statement mainly rests on the assumption that ...
9) Contrary to what is widely accepted, I maintain that ...

五、举例
1) A good case in point is ...
2) As an illustration, we may take ...
3) Such examples might be given easily.
4) ...is often cited as an example.

六、证明
1) No one can deny the fact that ...
2) The idea is hardly supported by facts.
3) Unfortunately, none of the available data shows ...
4) Recent studies indicate that ...
5) There is sufficient evidence to show that ...
6) According to statistics proved by ..., it can be seen that ...

七、开篇
1) Many nations have been faced with the problem of ...

第五部分.写作必备模板和句型

(一)综合运用篇
Along with the advance of the society more and more problems are brought to our attention, one of which is that….
随着社会的不断发展,出现了越来越多的问题,其中之一便是____________。
As to whether it is a blessing or a curse, however, people take different attitudes.
然而,对于此类问题,人们持不同的看法。
Hold different attitudes
持不同的看法(观点、态度)
Come up with different attitudes
有不同的看法
As society develops, people are attaching much importance to….
随着社会的发展,人们开始关注…………
People are attaching more and more importance to the interview during job hunting
求职的过程中,人们慢慢意识到面试的重要性。
As to whether it is worthwhile ….., there is a long-running controversial debate. It is quite natural that people from different backgrounds may have divergent attitudes towards it.
关于是否值得___________的问题,一直以来争论不休。当然,不同的人对此可能持不同的观点。
In the process of modern urban development, we often find ourselves in a dilemma.
在都市的发展中,我们往往会陷入困境。
Recently the phenomenon has aroused wide concern, some people are in alarm that….
最近,这种现象引起了人们的广泛关注,有人开始担心______________。
The human race has entered a completely new stage in its history, with the increasingly rapid economic globalization and urbanization, more problems are brought to our attention.
人类进入了一个历史的崭新的阶段,经济全球化、都市化的速度不断加快,随之给我们带来了很多问题。
…… plays such an important role that it undeniably becomes the biggest concern of the present world, there comes a question, is it a blessing or a curse?”
_______显得非常重要而成为当今世界所关注的最大的问题,这是无可厚非的。不过,问题是:“我们该如何抉择?”
Now we are entering a new era, full of opportunities and challenges
现在我们正在进入一个充满机会和挑战的新时代。

(二)展现问题篇
问题的常用词:question, problem, issue
Recently, the issue of …… has been brought into public focus.
近来,_______的问题引起了社会的广泛关注。
Now we are entering a brand new era full of opportunities and innovations, and great changes have taken place in people’s attitude towards some traditional practice.
现在我们进入了一个充满机遇和创新的崭新时代,很多人对某些传统的看法也发生了很大改变。
Recently the issue of whether or not … has been in the limelight and has aroused wide concern in the public.
近来,是否_______的问题已经非常明确而且引起了社会的广泛关注。
The issue whether it is good or not to …. has aroused a heated discussion all over the country.
______的利与弊已在全国范围内引起热烈的讨论。
At present, some people think ….while others claim …Both sides have their merits.
目前,一些人认为_______而另一些人则认为_______。其实,两种观点都其可取之处。
People rarely reach an absolute consensus on such a controversial issue.
对于这种极具争议的话题,我们很难作出绝对的回答。
People from different backgrounds would put different interpretations on the same case.
不同行业的人对同一种问题的解释不尽相同。
The controversial issue is often brought into public focus. People from different backgrounds hold different attitudes towards the issue.
这中极具争议性的话题往往很受社会的关注。不同的人对此问题的看法也不尽相同。
When asked …, some people think….. while some prefer…
说到______,有人认为________,而另一些人则认为__________。
Just as the saying goes: “so many people, so many minds”. It is quite understandable that views on this issue vary from person to person.
俗话说,“”。不同的人对此有不同的看法是可以理解的。
To this issue, different people come up with various attitudes.
对于这个问题,不同的人持不同的观点。
Those who strongly approve of … have cogent reasons for it.
强烈认同_______的人有很多原因。
Many people would claim that…
有人会认为___________。
People who support … give some or all of the following reasons.
那些支持_________观点的人列出了如下原因:________。
But others hold the view that …但是,另外一些人则认为_______。
观点的用词:Attitude, opinion, 与其搭配的动词以及词组:Take, have, come up with,set forth, put forward等。
But on the other hand, there are also quite a few people who strongly advocate that..,.
不过,另一方面,也有少部分人坚持认为_______________。
But people who are …, on the other hand , maintain that…
不过,另一方面,________的人认为__________。
However, there are a large number of people who hold a different view concerning this case.
然而,很多人对此有不同的看法。
问题用词:Issue, phenomenon,后接介词, on, over等。
However, some others argue that… 然而,另一些人则认为_________。
However, there are also some others who contend that...
然而,也有人认为__________。
But other people set forth completely totally different argument concerning this case.
不过,对于此,另一些人则持完全不同的观点。
Some people examine this issue from another angle.
有的人用另一角度来看这一问题。
On the other hand, there are also many opponents who strongly …
另一方面,也有很多反对的人,他们认为_____________。
According to my personality and fondness, I would prefer … rather than…
根据我的个性以及兴趣,我选择_______而不会选择__________。
Personally, I side with the latter (former) opinion…
就我个人而言,我支持后者(前者)___________。
Personally, I am in favor of the former point of view.
就我个人而言,我较同意前一种看法。
To my point of view 我认为
To my mind, the advantages far overweigh the drawbacks(disadvantages, shortcomings)
我认为,优点胜过缺点。
For my part, I stand on side of the latter opinion that..
就我而言,我较赞同后一种观点________________。
As far as I am concerned, I am inclined to be on the side of the latter view.
在我看来,我较同意后一种观点。
After a thorough consideration, for my part, I am in favor of the latter view that…
经过深思熟虑,我较支持后一种看法,亦即________________________。
If asked to make a decision, I would prefer…
如果真的需要作出选择,我宁愿____________。
Taking into consideration both sides of the issue, I tend to favor the latter view..
比较两种观点进行比较,我较同意后一种观点,亦即_________________。
When considering opinions of both sides, I am inclined to …
对两种观点进行综合考虑之后,我较认同_________________。
If it is up to me to make a choice between … and … I would rather choose … over…
如果要我在____和____之间进行选择,我宁愿选择_____而不会选择______。
I would have to say that, if I were faced with the decision, I would follow ….
我需要说的是,如果要我抉择,我会____________。
At the risk of sounding too direct , I prefer to…
虽然可能过于直接,不过,我还是选择____________。
表达不确定的用词:May, seem, be likely to, possible, probably, perhaps, be said that, be said to…

第八部分.综合技能训练

倒装句
一、倒装句

  1. So + 形容词 + be + 主词 + that + 句子(如此…以至于…)
    【例】So precious is time that we can not afford to waste it.

时间是如此珍贵,我们经不起浪费它。
这是四级考试作文部分经常用到的一个套句,也是我们在第一部分要学习的第一种句型——倒装句。我们注意到这个句子的谓语动词“be”放到的了主语的前面,这种句子成分顺序和标准句型不一致的句型就是倒装句。倒装(The Inversion),一般来说是一种较正式的句型,能考查考生的英文写作水平。在文章的开头用倒装句你的文章会因此而添色不少,也是写应试作文获取高分的亮点之一,所以我们一定要学会正确地使用它,恰当地用来阐述自己的观点。
2、adj. + as + Subject(主词)+ be, S. + V. + …(虽然…)
【例】Rich as our country is, our quality of life is by no means satisfactory.虽然我们的国家富有,我们的生活品质却不是令人满意的。
v by no means = in no way = on no account一点也不

  1. On no account can we + V. + …(我们绝对不能…)
    【例】On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge.

我们绝对不能忽略知识的价值。
4、倒装有两种。将主语和谓语完全颠倒过来,叫做完全倒装(complete inversion)。
【例】Then began a bitter war between the two countries. 于是两国之间开始了恶战。只将助动词(包括情态动词)移至主语之前,叫做部分倒装(partial inversion)。At no time can the entrance be left unguarded. 入口需要随时有人把守。

二、四级必考句型
(1) Among the disadvantages that may bring to are that + S. + V., making + n. + adj.
【分析】有时候,为了强调“介词 + 宾语”结构,我们把它置于句首,此时句子需要全部倒装,在本句中我们把谓语动词“are”放在了主语结构“that…”的前面。Among the disadvantages that cars may bring to our lives are that we could spend more time in traffic jams and we would likely spend more money on operation and maintenance fees, making our schedules tighter and our pockets lighter!
(2) With these steps, we can change our society into one out of which comes the possibility that
【分析】句中的定语从句“out of which comes the possibility…”是完全倒装句。With these steps, we can change our society into one out of which comes the possibility that natural resources will be fully cherished.
(3) There is a real possibility that , should there be a .
【分析】Should there be a…是省略if并部分倒装的将来时虚拟条件句。还原后为:If there should be a… There is a real possibility that we can solve this problem completely, should there be cooperation among all parties involved.
(4) never, hardly, seldom, rarely, not, until…,scarcely, in no case(不管怎样也不),in no way(不管怎么也不),by no means(决不),on no account(不论什么原因也不),at no time(无论什么时候也不)等否定词放在句首时,句子要倒装。By no means shall we cease to protect our environment.
(5) It was very late. Exhausted though she was, there was no hope of her being able to fall asleep.
【分析】从属连词as和though也可以用于让步状语从句中。这种从句必须以形容词(或形容词化的分词)、名词或动词原形开头,主句必须位于从句之后。
1) Small as a bicycle is, it can bring a lot of convenience to our lives.
2) Foolish though he looks, he always seems to make the wisest proposals. (他看起来样子傻傻的,可似乎总是能提出最聪明的建议。)
3) Try as you may, you will never succeed. (你尽管可以试,但决不会成功)。

三、练习
A、翻译

  1. 至于计算机化的影响,没有什么地方比银行能更清楚地看到其成果。
  2. 要不是来自政府的及时投资,我们的公司不会像现在这样繁荣昌盛。
  3. 只是过了一年,我就开始看到我工作的成绩。
  4. 该组织没有违反规章,但是它也没有负责任地认真工作。
  5. 几乎每个月都有消息报道调查中国公民中科学教育文盲问题的严重性。
  6. 打算离婚的父母没有很好地培养孩子应对将要到来的危机的能力,他们也没有向孩子们作出很有必要的保证:会有人照顾你们的。
  7. 虽然他聪明机智,也觉得解决这个问题很难。
  8. 她不仅学习刻苦,而且很有礼貌。
  9. 树下坐着的人,是我见过的最高大的人之一。
  10. 只有当研究者获得充分的数据,他们才能得出一个正确的结论。
    【参考答案】
  11. As for the influence of computerization, nowhere have we seen the results more clearly than in the bank.
  12. Had it not been for the timely investment from the government, our company would not be thriving as it is.
  13. Only after a year did I begin to see the results of my work.
  14. The organization had broken no rules, but neither had it acted responsibly.
  15. Hardly a month goes by without word of another survey revealing new depths of scientific illiteracy among Chinese citizens.
  16. Parents planning to divorce do not sufficiently prepare their children for the coming crisis, nor do they provide them with the necessary assurances that they will be cared for in the aftermath.
  17. Clever and resourceful though he was, he found more than a little difficulty solving the problem.
  18. Not only was she a hard worker, but she was also very polite.
  19. Under a tree was sitting one of the biggest men I had ever seen.
  20. Only when the researchers have obtained sufficient data can they come to a sound conclusion.
    B. 改错
  21. Scarcely they had settled themselves in their seats in the theatre when the curtain went up.
  22. Under no circumstances we should do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.
  23. Not until an infant hedgehog(刺猬)opens its eyes it leaves its nest to follow its mother about.
  24. Down jumped was the burglar from the tenth floor when the policeman pointed his pistol at him.
  25. Most of his classmates agree with the opinion that bad as he is,but he has his good points.
  26. Not until have I passed the examination will I be able to go out to parties.
  27. Not only the student disturb the authority of the older generation he can threaten the social system as a whole.
  28. No fewer than one thousand people did come here to attend the competition.
  29. We had hardly arrived when does she started crying to go home.
  30. No sooner had he drunk the coffee when he began to feel drowsy.
    【参考答案】
  31. they had—had they 2. we should—should we 3. it leaves—does it leave
  32. 去掉was 5. 去掉but 6. have I—I have
  33. only后加does 8. did come—came 9. 去掉does
  34. when—than

四、伟人伟招

  1. 英勇无畏式
    Nothing in life is to be feared. It is only to be understood. (Marie Curie)

生活中没有什么可怕的东西,只有需要理解的东西。(居里夫人)
【点评】这句话可用于提出问题的解决方法,比如说关于“global shortage of fresh water”,在提到如何应对时,不妨说:Famous scientist Marie Curie once said, “Nothing in life is to be feared; it is only to be understood.” In the same ways, once we understand the causes of this phenomenon, we can confidently believe that we will solve the problem with the following means.

  1. 热情无限式
    A man can succeed at almost anything for which he has unlimited enthusiasm.(C. M. Schwab)

只要有无限的热情,一个人几乎可以在任何事情上取得成功。(施瓦布)
【点评】用法和上句类似。

  1. 理想远大式
    The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and also the determination to attain it. (Goethe)

人生重要的在于确立一个伟大的目标,并有决心使其实现。(歌德)
【点评】我们可以从歌德的话语里面,学到一个很好的句型:The important thing is to…, 不妨进一步学一个四级里面另两个更受欢迎的句型:(1) Nothing is + (adj).er than to + V. + … Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V. + … 【例】Nothing is more important than to receive education. 没有比接受教育更重要的事。(2) What a + adj. + n. + S. + V.!= How + adj. + a + n. + V.!(多么…!) What an important thing it is to keep our promise! How important a thing it is to keep our promise!遵守诺言是多么重要的事!

五、实践与提高
用下列给出的句型造句:

  1. The narrator may be right about…, but he neglects to mention he fact that…
  2. As opposed to widely held beliefs, I believ that…
  3. Although many people believe that…, I doubt whether the argument holds up to much analysis .
  4. The advantages of B outweigh any benefit we could gain from A.
  5. Although it is commonly held that…, it is unlikely that…
  6. There is an element of truth in this argument , but it ignores a deeper and more basic fact that…
  7. It is true that …, but that is not to say that…
  8. The main problem with this argument is that it is ignorant of the basic fact that…
  9. It would be natural to think that…, but it would be absurd to claim that…
  10. In all the discussion and debate over…, one important fact is generally overlooked

强调句
一、强调句精彩套句展示
It is universally acknowledged that + 句子(全世界都知道…)
是一个在四级作文里面用来阐述观点的经典句型,用词也很出色。
It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us. 全世界都知道树木对我们是不可或缺的。
It is…that + 句子…构成强调句型(The Emphatic Pattern)
英语常用的强调结构是“It is/was+被强调部分(主语、宾语或状语)+ who(that)…”。一般说来,被强调部分指人时,用who;指事物时,用that;在美国英语中指事物时常用which来代替that。
与之类似的常用句型还有:
It is conceivable that + 句子(可想而知的)
It is obvious that + 句子(明显的)
It is apparent that + 句子(显然的)
It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life. 可想而知,知识在我们的一生中扮演一个重要的角色。

二、语法精讲

  1. 简介
    (1) 一般情况用It is (was)…that (who)…,指人时,用who;指物时,用that。

我们分别可以强调主语、宾语、表语、时间状语和地点状语等。如:
He read three books in the library yesterday.(正常句子)

It was he who read three books in the library yesterday.(强调主语)    
It was three books that he read in the library yesterday.(强调宾语)    
It was in the library that he read three books yesterday.(强调地点状语)    
(2) 强调状语或定语时,只用that,不用when、where,如:    
It is at 5 o’clock that the train will arrive.    
(3) 被强调的部分是主语时,注意句子的谓语动词和被强调的主语保持一致。如:    
It is he who is late.    
It is they who were late.    
(4) 一般疑问句的强调句为“Is (was) it + that…?”;特殊疑问句为:“特殊疑问词+ is (was) +it +that…?”结构。如:    
Was it ten years ago that his father died?(他的父亲是十年前去世的吗?)    
When is it that you will set off?(你到底什么时候出发?)    
(5)“not…until…”句型的强调结构为“It is not until…that…”应注意把否定词not转移到until前面。如:    
I didn’t go home until the rain stopped.(直到雨停了我才回家)。    
强调句为:It was not until the rain stopped that I went home.    
I didn’t know the news until yesterday.(直到昨天我才知道那个消息)    

强调句为:It was not until yesterday that I knew the news.

  1. 四级必考套句学习

    (1) It is the responsibility of       to do sth.     
    【分析】注意,从形式上看该句子很像强调句型,而实际上并非如此,因为句中it是形式主语,动词不定式作实际主语。    
    It is the responsibility of every citizen in our society to do his utmost to protect the environment.     
    (2) It is the       , I suppose, that have\has given rise to       .     
    【分析】该强调句型强调句子主语,I suppose作为插入语。这是一个很好掌握的四级长句,在作文中需要分析原因时,可以用它阐述自己的看法。    
    It is the tighter job market, I suppose, that has given rise to the increase in the number of unemployed college students in China.     
    (3) It is only when       that       .    
    【分析】强调句型强调when引导时间从句。    

    It is only when you nearly lose someone that you become fully conscious of how much you value him.

三、练习与进步
A. 翻译

    1. 直到最后一刻,我才得知事情的传闻。

      1. 他是否接受我的观点,我并不在乎。
      2. 我不应干预此类事。
      3. 在拥挤的公交车上抽烟,是不礼貌的行为。
      4. 爱迪生是位真正的天才,这是不容置疑的。
      5. 直到他走进教室,才意识到忘了做家庭作业。
      6. 在我们家,饭前洗手是每个人的习惯。
      7. 一个人应该精读一门,博览各科。
      8. 她觉得回复这封信,是她应尽的责任。
      9. 大多数年轻人都认为过轻松不用努力的生活是最好的,这是令人遗憾的事。

        【参考答案】

      10. It was at the eleventh hour that I got wind of what was going on.
      11. It does not matter whether he accepts my opinions or not.
      12. It is not my place to interfere in such affairs.
      13. It is impolite behavior to smoke in a crowded bus.
      14. It is undeniable that Edison was a genius in the truest sense of the word.
      15. It was not until he entered the classroom that he realized he had forgotten to do the homework.
      16. In our home it is a rigid rule for each person to wash his hands before eating.
      17. It is wise to read everything about something and something about everything.
      18. She felt it incumbent upon her to answer the letter at once.
    1. It is to be regretted that the majority of young people should look upon an effortless life as the highest good.
      B. 改错

      1. It is she which I think is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.
      2. There is an old saying which says, “Great oaks from little acorns
        grow.”
      3. It is in the park which they’ll take a picnic.
      4. It is believed which the earliest feature of chronic bronchitis is
      5. secretion from the mucous glands and goblet call.
      6. It is one of his peculiarities that no incident ever happens to him
      7. without teaching him some valuable lesson.
      8. It is an error to suppose which the public is indifferent or unable
      9. understand the problems of religion and philosophy.
      10. It is wrong to accuse a person of a crime that you have evidence
      11. he may be guilty.
      12. It be reasonable to receive extra pay for extra work.
      13. It is very difficult that you haven’t sufficient data to solve the
      14. 【参考答案】
      15. which—who 2. which—that 3. which—where 4. which—that
      16. 去掉him后面的that 6. which—that 7. that—unless
    2. be—is 9. that—when

    四、伟人伟招

    1. 百折不挠式    
    We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope. (Martin Luther King, Jr.)    
    我们必须接受失望,因为它是有限的,但千万不可失去希望,因为它是无穷的。(马丁·路德·金)    

    【点评】该句为马丁·路德·金生命的体验,我们在作文中谈到某种麻烦的解决方法时,借用过来妙不可言。另外We must do…, but we must never…用于观点的转折或者递进效果很好。

    2. 深入生活式    
    Genius is formed in quiet, character in the stream of life. (Goethe )    
    天才形成于平静中,性格来自于生活的激流。(歌德)    

    【点评】歌德之才,恐非我辈能及,但大师的语言却给我们无穷的灵感。表示“形成”记着用“is formed in”,简单之处见真章。

    五、实践与进步

    用下列给出的句型造句:    
    1. There is  absolutely   no      reason for us to  believe  that…    
    2.  Logical  as this argument is, and I whole-heartedly agree with it, it appears    
    insignificant  when… is taken into  consideration  .    
    3. To  assume  that…  is far from infallible  .    
    4. A  close    inspection    of this argument would reveal how  flimsy      it is.    
    5.  On the surface  ,  it   may seem  a sound      suggestion  , but    
    with careful consideration   , we find that…    
    6. Too much  emphasis placed on    … may  obscure  other facts, including that…    
    7. The  danger   is that…    
    8. What the  narrator  fails to  understand  is that…    
    9. We don’t have to look very far to  see      the  truth    of this  argument   .    
    10. However  just    this argument may be, it only skims the surface of the problem    
    
         
    省 略 句    

    一、四级精彩套句展示

    It is necessary that effective actions be taken to prevent this problem.     
    省略,在语言中,尤其在对话中是一种常见的现象,它可以使语气明了。英语里被省略部分一般可以在句子中补上。本句是省略should的虚拟语气,完整句为It is necessary that effective actions should be taken to prevent this problem. 这种对虚拟语气的省略在四级作文句子里面广为存在,    

    又如:It is hoped that great efforts should be directed to (expended on / focused on) finding (developing / improving)…中的should也可省略。

    二、语法精讲

    1. 简介    
    句子中的某一成分省略的现象,在语言当中广泛存在,汉语当中也有。比如:一班的学生比二班的多。本句中在“二班的”后面就省略了“学生”一词,因为根据语境,该词我们已经可以推理得知,在语言中为了避免麻烦,将其省略。    

    大家可能会说:“四级考试中我就担心字数凑不够,为什么还要学习省略呢?”字数的问题确实是我们必须面对的问题,但并不是四级考核的惟一标准。省略句的合理利用,会起到事半功倍的效果。首先,启用省略句虽然在字数上吃了点小亏,但是可以让句子更精炼流畅,可谓舍一而得十;另外,很多考生为了凑字数,啰里啰嗦,让评卷老师味同嚼蜡,这时你的省略句就可能会如一缕春风,好处自不用多言。

    2. 四级必考句型    
    (1) Although many have tried, few have succeeded in attempts to       .    
    【分析】本句中tried后的宾语可根据后半句的语义推测得知,所以可以省略,避免重复。    
    Although many have tried, few have succeeded in attempts to find perfect solutions.    
    (2)       , be it       , will bring a lot of happiness into our lives.    
    【分析】本句是一个超难句型,中间一节省略了whether和might,并进行了倒装,将“be it”恢复后应为whether it might be。Be it…,可译为“比方说”,用来给出更多细节。    
    The application of electric power, be it to light our rooms or to listen to music, will bring a lot of happiness to our lives.      
    (3) Christie stared angrily at her boss and turned away, as though to go out of the office.    

    【分析】as though引导方式状语从句,谓语常用虚拟语气,本句中主句的主语与从句的主语相同,故从句中的主语和谓语省略,即省略了she wanted;如果补全,即为:as though she wanted to go out of the office.

    三、练习与进步

    A. 翻译    
    1. 因为项目任务十分艰巨,这个项目需要的劳动力比我们已经投入的要多。      
    2. 虽然Dave Mitchell在旧金山长大,但他总是更喜欢记录小镇生活的平淡事实。  
    3. 就像土壤是地球的一部分一样,大气也是地球的一部分。    
    4. 没有人会有时间去读或听讲述世界发生的每一件事情。    
    5. 他的衣服很宽大,好像是为比他个子大一倍的人裁剪的。    
    6. 海豚与狗同样都是聪明的动物。    
    7. 每个人能够走钢丝而没有一丝畏惧的,除非他从小就训练过。    
    8. 不管付出多大的代价,他都会坚持他认为正确的。    
    9. 他经常坐在一间小酒吧里喝酒,喝得太多了,不利于他的身体。      
    10. 尽管相对贵一些,但是这个发动机效率更高,而且不需要经常维修。     
                                                                                  
    【参考答案】    
    1. The project requires more labor than has been put in because it is extremely difficult.    
    2. Though raised in San Francisco, Dave Mitchell had always preferred to record the plain facts of small-town life.    
    3. Just as the soil is a part of the earth, so too is the atmosphere.    
    4. No one would have time to read or listen to an account of everything that is going on in the world.    
    5. His suit hung loosely as if tailored for someone twice his size.    
    6. A dolphin is no less a clever animal than a dog.    
    7. No one can walk the wire without a bit of fear unless trained very young.    
    8. He stands up for what he thinks right, whatever the personal cost.    
    9. He often sat in a small bar drinking considerably more wine than was good for his health.    
    10. Even though relatively costly, the engine is highly efficient and infrequently needs servicing.    
    B. 改错    
    1. A programmed computer begins to show on its screen the figures    
    you need when is switched on.                                                     
    2. No one, at any rate no English writer, has written about     
    childhood life in a way more poignant than Dickens was.              
    3. Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of     
    patients do not taken drugs as directed, lowering the effectiveness of    
    the drugs significantly.                                                             
    4. Layer upon layer of deep snow means that, when it melted,    
    the snow-water would be pure, not salty as sea -ice would be.          
    5. All these projects require continuous spending on new equipment    
    and new development if they are to serve properly, and require more    
    money than is raised through taxes alone today.                     
    6. You spent more money than was intended to spend.                             
    7. To understand the situation completely require more thought    
    that has been given thus far.                                                         
    8. We can observe small things clearly under a microscope     
    because it makes them appear larger as they really are.                  
    9. In debating, one must correct the opponent’s falsehoods, deny        
    the relevance of his proof, and deny that which he presents as proof,    
    even if relevant, is sufficient.                                                     
    10. Yet these old controversies give no less revealing insight on the    

    minds of our grandfathers than do the major issues of the last century.

    【参考答案】    
    1. is去掉            2. was—did           3. taken—take            4. it去掉    
    5. is—is being        6. spend—be spent       7. require—requires        8. as—than    
    1. which—what 10. on—into

    四、伟人伟招

    1. 以退为进式    
    On earth there is nothing great but man; and in man there is nothing great but mind. (Hamilton )    
    世界上,没有什么比人更伟大,而对于人来说,没有什么比精神更伟大。    
    【点评】在你考试写作文时,也可以用这种方式来分步把你的观点说出来,这种句子体现了一种智慧上的美。另外nothing but…(只有…)句型我们要熟练掌握。    
    I have nothing but compassion for your situation.    

    Nothing but determination will get us through this.

    2. 精力无穷式    
    Live as though you intend to live forever, and work as though your strength were limitless. (S. Bernhardt )    
    要这样生活,仿佛你寿命永恒;要这样工作,仿佛你精力无穷。(波恩哈特)    

    【点评】是个很生动的句型,很有文学魅力,可以背会用来鼓励大家努力。用在最后一段的开头,可以画龙点睛。

    3. 前轻后重式    
    Don’t believe that winning is really everything. It’s more important to stand for something. If you don’t stand for something, what do you win? (Lane Kirkland )    
    不要认为取胜就是一切,更重要的是要有信念。倘若你没有信念,那胜利又有什么意义呢?(柯克兰)    

    【点评】这是正反论述文的经典句型。前面的观点是你反对的,后面的是你所支持的。例如在文章的最后一段可以这样写:Don’t be afraid that we won’t succeed in solving this problem; it is more important to know we are doing our best. 这样,20多个单词就毫不费力地写出来了。

    五、实践与进步

    将下面的句子补充完整    
    1. Although the popular belief is that…, a  current    study         indicates    
    that…    
    2. Common sense tells us that…    
    3. The  increase  in…  mainly   results from …    
    4. The  increase  in… is  due to       the fact that…    
    5. Many people would claim that…    
    6. One may  attribute the  increase  to…, but… is not by itself an adequate    
    explanation.    
    7. One of the reasons given for… is that…    
    8. What is also worth highlighting is that…    
    9. There are  many        causes  for this  dramatic     growth  in…. First, …    
    Second,… Finally,…    
    10. There is no evidence to suggest that…    
    
         

    并 列 句
    一、四级精彩套句展示

    I like traveling, and I will do my best to share the fun of traveling with others.     
    同学们总是习惯写简单句,把句子写成了:I like traveling. I will do my best to share the fun of traveling with others.而四级考试要求大家多写长句,and…结构就是一个简单好用的长句结构。只要把两个主语一样的句子间的句号改成逗号,再加上and就可以了。有时还可以把后一句的主语省略。例如:It appears mysteriously and spreads spontaneously in many different forms.    

    以and, or, but等连接的简单句,掌握熟练的话,会让我们的文章流畅自然。

    二、语法精讲

    1. 简介    

    并列句是英语中广泛存在的一种句型,其特点是用表示并列关系的连词将两个独立的句子联系起来。主要用or和and来连接。

    
    2. 四级必备套句    
    (1)Work hard, and you will finally be able to reach your destination.  努力工作,你就能实现你的最终目标。    
    【分析】“命令式+and”在表示条件时,表示“你要…才会…”的意思。在写作里面可以用来提出建议。“名词+and”句式有时也可以用来表示条件,如:One more effort, and you will be successful.    
    (2)Study hard, or you will fail to pass the exam.  如果你不努力学习,你将无法通过考试。    

    【分析】“命令式+or”句式表示“你要…否则…”或“否则的话”等意思。

    三、练习与进步

    A. 翻译    
    1. 说话大声点,教室里的学生才能听到你讲的内容。    
    2. 你要早点出发,这样才能提前到达那里。    
    3. 要是你违反了法律,你将会被警察逮捕。    
    4. 轻点儿走,否则你会弄出声响儿吵醒婴儿。     
    5. 仔细点儿读这本书,否则你将无法理解其主题思想。    
    6. 如果再来一次这样的暴风雨,所有的庄稼都将被毁。     
    7. 说曹操,曹操就到。    
    8. 快点,否则你要迟到了。      
    9. 快点走,否则就赶不上早班车了。    
    10. 努力学习,你就能够通过这次考试。    
                                                                                  
    注意:“命令式+and”表示条件时,表示“你要…才会…”的意思;“命令式+or”句式表示“你要…否则…”或“否则的话”等意思;同时,要注意“名词+and”句式有时也可以用来表示条件。这三种类型有一个共同特点就是and或or后面的从句要用一般将来时态。    
    【参考答案】    
    1. Speak louder, and every student in the classroom will able to hear you.    
    2. Start early, and you will arrive ahead of schedule.    
    3. Violate the law, and you will be arrested by the police.    
    4. Walk slightly, or you will make a noise and wake the baby.    
    5. Read the book more carefully, or you will not understand the main idea.    
    6. One more such storm and all the crops will be totally destroyed.    
    7. Talk of the devil, and he will appear.    
    8. Please, quickly, or you will be late.    
    9. Walk quickly, or you will not catch the early bus.    
    10. Study hard, and you will pass the examination.    
    B. 改错    
    1. Speak more loudly, and you won’t be heard by others.                            
    2. Write quickly, and you won’t finish the composition in time.
    3. Work hard, or you will pass the English examination.                             
    4. Read one more, or you will catch the meaning.                                 
    5. Admitting your faults, or you will be punished.                                 
    6. Read philosophy books, and you will be benefit from them     
    sooner or later.                                                                 
    7. Think it over, or you will find the solution to the problem.     
    8. Do the morning exercise, and you will benefit in it.                 
    9. Work hard, and you will successful one day.                                     
    10. Write neatly and clearly, or you will give your teacher a     
    good impression.                                                                 
    【参考答案】    
    1. and—or        2. and—or        3. or—and        4. or—and            5. Admitting—Admit    
    1. be去掉 7. or—and 8. in—from 9. will—will be 10. or—and

    四、伟人伟招

    1. 向前看,向右看式    
    Life can only be understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards. (Kierkegaard )    
    只有向后看才能理解生活;但要生活好,则必须向前看。(克尔凯郭尔)    

    【点评】写四级文章时,这句话用来在原因段和解决问题段之间承上启下,确是个完美的选择。

    2. 匹夫有责式    
    No man is useless in this world who lightens the burden of someone else.    
    (C. Dickens )    
    在这个世界上能为别人减轻负担的人都是有用的。(狄更斯)    

    【点评】该句用来论述个人应该为社会减负的问题时,可谓是恰到好处。

    五、实践与进步

    将下面的句子补完整    
    1. Why are …? For one thing, … For another, …    
    2. Another reason why I dispute the above statement is that…    
    3. It gives rise to a host of  problems.    
    4. There are numerous reasons why…, and I shall explore here only a few of the most important ones.    
    5. It will exert profound influence on…    
    6. A multitude of factors could account for the change in…    
    7. In 1999, it increased from 5 to 10 percent of the total .    
    8. By comparison with 1998, it decreased from 10 to 5 percent .    
    9. … account(s) for 15 percent of the total.    
    10. There were 100 traffic accidents in April, and an increase of 5 percent in a five-month period.    
    By 1999, only three quarters of college-aged  were against…,     
    (as compared with)  last year , the same population preferred to (liked)…    
    
    
    句子的连接    

    一、四级精彩句型展示

      1. The reason why + 句子 … is that + 句子(…的原因是…)    
      这是在四级考试里面用得很多的一个定语从句句型,通过why把两个句子联系起来,why后的句子作为从句是the reason的定语。    
      The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can provide us with fresh air.    
      类似的还有those who结构,如:    
      Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished. 违反交通规定的人应该受处罚。    
      2. Since the time that + S + 过去式,S + 现在完成时。    
      该句型用since一词将两个句子联系起来,表示一种时间关系。    
      Since the time that he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard. 自从他上高中,他一直很用功。    
      连接在写作中是很重要的,就像自行车的链条,它的好坏会直接影响速度和行驶距离。连接于写作就如我们身体的水,没有水就没有生命,没有好的连接,相应的也不会有精彩的作文问世。    
    

    二、语法精讲

      1. 简介    
      连接手段(The connective)一般包括连接词、连接代词、连接副词、关系代词和关系副词。连接手段是一个很宽泛的概念,概括了复合句、定语从句、状语从句等。建议大家结合本系列丛书的《词汇·语法·完形填空分册》中的从句讲解进行学习。    
    
      2. 四级必备套句    
      (1) 主语+谓语(过去进行时成过去完成时)+其他成分+when+主语+谓语(一般过去时)+其他成分    
      【分析】该句型中when引导的分句表示分句行为发生的突然性,when常译为“就在这时”,该句在记叙文的写作中经常用到。    
      On a rainy day I was driving on the Street of Eternal Peace when I noticed a young man holding up a sign that read “Frank”. 在一个下雨天,我正驾车通过长安街,就在这时我突然注意到一个年轻人举着一块牌子,上面写着“弗兰克”。    
      (2) No one everything that is going on in the world.    
      【分析】“that is going on in the world”是定语从句,修饰everything,当先行词是everything等不定代词时,关系代词要用that。这句子在阐述原因时是个很有效的句子。    
      No one has time to read an account of everything that is going on in the world. 没有一个人会有时间去阅读介绍世界上正在发生的每一件事情。(在论述有选择性的阅读的重要性时)    
      (3) rather than…, we should…    
      【分析】“rather than”意为“而不是”或“没有去”。    
      Rather than pursue money to achieve happiness, we should focus on the improvement of parts of ourselves.    
      类似的还有other than(=except)除了(表示所说的不包括在内)。    
      He never speaks to me other than to ask for something. 他除了向我要东西,从不跟我说话。    
      She has no close friends other than me. 她除了我以外从没有别的好朋友。    
    

    三、练习与进步

      A. 翻译    
      1. 那位演讲者声称,没有哪个现代国家像中国那样在公共事业资助和保健方面投入其财富的比例如此之小。    
      2. 如果将睡觉的人一开始进入梦乡就叫醒,即使他们的睡眠总量是足够的,他们也很可能变得烦躁易怒。    
      3. 虽然他很喜欢她,但确实有时他也对她发火。    
      4. 水将继续保持它今天的地位——在重要性方面仅次于氧。    
      5. 社会保障退休计划是由两笔信托基金组成的,其中数额较大的一笔基金到来年可能会分文不值。    
      6. 做家庭作业是提高考试成绩的可靠方法,在课堂测试中更是这样。    
      7. 这个城市中有100多所夜校,这使专业人员能得到进修,不管他是从事什么工作的。    
      8. 从这些数字的比较中可以看出,病人积极配合治疗是改善其病情的重要原则。    
      9. 加利福尼亚的阳光多得它不知怎么处理,但其他东西却很贵。    
      10. 谁想要这本词典,我就给谁。    
      【参考答案】    
      1. The speaker claimed that no other modern nation devotes so small a portion of its wealth to public assistance and health as does China.    
      2. If individuals are awakened each time they begin a dream phrase of sleep, they are likely to become irritable even though their total amount of sleep has been sufficient.    
      3. Much as he likes her, he does get irritated with her sometimes.    
      4. Water will continue to be what it is today: second in importance to oxygen.    
      5. The Social Security Retirement Program is made up of two trust funds, the larger of which could go penniless by next year.    
      6. Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true when it comes to classroom tests.    
      7. There are over 100 night schools in this city, making it possible for a professional to be reeducated no matter what he does.    
      8. As can be seen from the comparison of these figures, the principle involves the active participation of the patient in the modification of his condition.    
      9. California has more light than it knows what to do with but everything else is expensive.    
      10. I’ll give this dictionary to anyone who wants to have it.    
      B. 改错    
      1. The senior librarian at the circulation desk promised to get the book    
      for me if only she could remember who last borrowed it.     
      2. Prof Lee’s book will show you how that you have observed can    
      be used in other contexts.     
      3. You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting until you    
      don’t mind taking the night train.     
      4. Most electronic devices of this kind, that are manufactured    
      for such purposes, are packaged tightly.     
      5. Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, of    
      obtaining water is not the least.     
      6. Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe but that    
      it provides the building blocks from which other elements are produced.     
      7. That it is generally accepted, economic growth is determined    
      by the smooth development of production.     
      8. There are over 100 night schools in this city, making it possible    
      for a professional to be reeducated no matter how he does.     
      9. Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores,    
      and this is especially true since it comes to classroom tests.     
      10. Granted that we had all the materials ready, we should begin    
      the new task at once.     
      【参考答案】    
      1. if only―only if 2. that后加what 3. until―provided 4. that―as    
      5. of―of which 6. but―in 7. That―As    
      8. how―what 9. since―when 10. had―have   
    

    四、伟人伟招

      1. 摔倒了再爬起来式    
      Our greatest glory consists not in never falling but in rising every time we fall. (O. Goldsmith)    
      我们最值得自豪的不在于从不跌倒,而在于每次跌倒之后都爬起来。(哥德斯密斯)    
      【点评】该句可以用于一些关于社会问题的文章。虽然我们犯了错误,产生了问题,但是我们要做的是“爬起来”做点事情来补偿。    
    
      2. 有缺而无憾式    
      To be without some of the things you want is an indispensable part of happiness. (Russell )    
      有些东西你想要而没有,这是幸福不可缺少的一部分。(罗素)    
      【点评】“…is an indispensable part of….”,这个句型我们可以借鉴。  
    
      3. 没有条件,创造条件也要上式    
      The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for circumstances they want, and if they cannot find them, make them. (Bernard Shaw)    
      在这个世界上取得成功的人,都努力去寻找他们想要的机会,如果找不到时,他们就自己创造机会。(萧伯纳)    
      【点评】这几个小短语的连用很显英文实力,“get on, get up and look for”简单但组合后却很不一般,这个句子是个很好的例子。    
    

    五、实践与提高

      将下面的句子补充完整:    
      1. From what has been discussed above , we may safely draw the conclusion that…   
      2. All the evidence supports the unshakable conclusion that…    
      3. It is high time that we place great emphasis on the improvement of…     
      4. It is high time that we put an end to the deep-seated situation of…     
      5. We must look for an immediate action , because the present    
      situation of…, if permitted to continue , will surely lead to the    
      end of…    
      6. There is no easy solution to the problem of…, but… might be a    
      useful measure to take.    
      7. There is no easy method hand to solve the problem of…, but    
      increasing the common recognition of the necessity of… might be the first    
      step towards change .    
      8. Following these methods may not guarantee success in …, but the pay-off    
      will be worth the effort.    
      9. Obviously , if we ignore the problem, there is every chance that…    
      10. Unless there is a common realization of …, it is very likely that…
    
    其他经典句型 (1)   

    一、经典句型展示

      1. I am all but ready. 我几乎准备好了。    
      【分析】① all but = almost; nearly表示“几乎”。它是个含有副词功能的词条。 ② all but… 有时可表示“差一点就…”的意思。③ all but…有时也表示“除…外,全部都…”的意思,这时all but = all except。    
      2. That little bridge is anything but safe. 那座小桥一点也不安全。    
      【分析】① anything but=not at all; far from, 表示强烈否定,是“决不”的意思。② anything but有时也可以表示“除…之外的任何…”等意思。    
      3. It is far from all of the students who are able to speak Chinese. 并不是所有的学生都讲中文。    
      【分析】It is far from all…not. 表示“并不是所有的…都”。    
      4. You must leave her a message, and immediately at that. 你必须给她留言,而且马上就要行动。    
      【分析】at that放于句尾表示强调    
    

    二、练习与进步

      A. 翻译    
      1. 过去的20年中,他几乎做好了所有的准备,差一点就可以毕业了。    
      2. 国庆就要到了,除他之外,所有的人都正在为此庆典准备着。    
      3. 并不是所有的外国游客都来自欧洲。    
      4. 他们两个都没有去过中国。    
      5. 由于交通堵塞,公交车不规律地向前移动,而且速度非常的慢。    
      6. 他独自一个人生活,但是一点儿也不觉得孤独。    
      7. 别听他的甜言蜜语,去年他把我骗了。那是条披着羊皮的狼。    
      8. 我购物时,总请朋友们帮我选择颜色。    
      9. 除非在各方面都准备得周密,否则在应付入侵之敌的时候,我们将处于不利地位。    
      10. 除了一些无聊的行为外,我什么都喜欢。    
      【参考答案】    
      1. In the last 20 years, he has all but graduated from that university.    
      2. National Day is coming, and everyone but him is preparing for the celebration.    
      3. Not all of the foreign visitors came from Europe.    
      4. Neither of them have visited China.    
      5. Because of the heavy traffic, the bus moved forward irregularly, and the speed even then was very slow.    
      6. He lived alone, but he felt anything but lonely.    
      7. Don’t listen to his sweet words. I was cheated by him last year. He’s a wolf in sheep’s clothing.    
      8. When I shop, I usually ask my friends to help me decide on the color.    
      9. Unless we are prepared in every aspect, we shall be at a disadvantage in dealing with the invaders.    
      10. I enjoy anything but silliness.    
      B. 改错    
      1. The child was all that run over by the train.     
      2. The skaters on the pond all not broke through the ice.     
      3. Only but John passed the examination.     
      4. I enjoy all the last one of her novels.     
      5. I can only select either of the two schemes.     
      6. You must pay attention to your behavior, and constantly that.     
      7. Everyone wants a happy family, and a healthy one.     
      8. He used to take drugs that he was young.     
      9. Some will wrangle for freedom; write for it; even fight for it;    
      nothing but die for it.     
      10. The old man who had been used working from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m.    
      was like a fish out of water when his firm pensioned him off.     
      【参考答案】    
      1. that―but 2. not―but 3. only―All 4. all后加but    
      5. only去掉 6. that前加at 7. one后加at that     
      8. that―when 9. nothing―anything 10. used―used to   
    

    三、伟人伟招

      1. 协力成功式    
      Great men are rarely isolated mountain-peaks; they are summits of ranges. (T. W. Higginson)    
      伟人很少是突兀的山峰;他们是众山中的最高峰。(希金森)    
      【点评】这是一个绝佳的句子用在最后一段的开头,例如可以这样写:Just as T. W. Higginson said, “Great men are rarely isolated mountain-peaks; they are summits of ranges.” We should make efficient use of the wisdom to seek the best solution for this.  
    
      2. 前人种树,后人乘凉式    
      We should live and labor in our time such that what came to us as seed may go to the next generation as blossom, and what came to us as blossom may go to them as fruit. This is what we mean by progress. (H. W. Beecher)    
      我们一生应该这样地生活和劳动,使给予我们的种子能在下一代开花,使给予我们的花朵能在下一代结果,这就是我们所说的进步的意义。(比彻)    
      【点评】这是such that句型的一个复杂变体,我们可以欣赏一下,高手可以尝试使用。    
          
    
    
    其他经典句型(2)    

    一、经典句型展示

      1. The enemy attempted to win over uncle Chen, but it was in vain. 敌人企图把陈大叔拉过去,但是徒然无效。    
      【分析】in vain = uselessly; without a successful result. 表示“徒然,枉然,没有结果”。    
      2. It is no use trying to persuade him to accept the gift. 设法说服他去接受这份礼物是徒劳的(白费心机的)。    
      【分析】①“It is no use ~ing”中,~ing是动词形式,它表示的是“做…是徒劳的”的意思;② 此外it也可以连接由疑问词所引导的从句。    
      3. It is not till they lose it that people know the value of health. 直到失去健康,人们才知道健康的价值。    
      【分析】“It is not till (until)…that…”是not till (until)的强调句型,它就是让it is…that…的一种变化,表示“直到”的意思。    
      4. It is with life as with a dream. 人生就像是一场梦。    
      【分析】It is with… as with…= It is in… as in…,表示“…就像是…”之意,前面的词语是句子的重点,as with紧跟的词语则是它的比喻。    
      5. It will be some time before it returns to its original shape. 到它恢复到原来的形状为止,是要花上一些时间的。    
      【分析】“It will be…before…”表示“到…为止,要花…的时间”,它除了将来时的形式出现外,还可以用其他的形式来表达。  
    

    二、练习与进步

      A. 翻译    
      1. 我在这儿干死干活的,可是根本就没有机会涨工资,更别说升职了。    
      2. 当火车启动时,设法赶上那趟车是徒劳的。    
      3. 夏天到了,直到19:00,天才开始逐渐黑下来。    
      4. 人生就像是一次远行,经历喜怒哀乐,同时积累经验。    
      5. 人类就像土地一样,有时会存在着所有人都没有发觉的金矿。    
      6. 花了八年多时间,军队才击败敌人获得全面胜利。    
      7. 不管你说什么,我和那件事无关。    
      8. 总统和这起贿赂案没有关系。    
      9. 老师听到那个男孩小声地说了些什么,她让他高声重复。    
      10. 他们完成这项工程的监理工作需要花半年的时间。    
      【参考答案】    
      1. I am just spinning my wheels here—there’s no chance to get a pay raise, much less a promotion.    
      2. It is no use trying to catch up with the train once it starts.    
      3. Summer is coming, now it was not until 7:00 p.m. that the sky starts getting dark.    
      4. It is in life as in a long journey: going through difficulties, as well as pleasant times, and at the same time, concentrated experiences.    
      5. It is in man as in soil that there is sometimes a vein of gold that the owner is unaware of.    
      6. It was more than 8 years before the army defeated the enemy completely    
      7. Whatever you may say, I have no concern with that issue.    
      8. The president had no concern with the bribery case.    
      9. The teacher heard the boy say something under his breath and she asked him to repeat it aloud.    
      10. It will be about another half a year before they finish the engineering construction supervision.    
      B. 改错    
      1. We protested on vain. The government still insisted on    
      demolishing the building.     
      2. All he has done is vain. It won’t save our company.     
      3. It is absurd think about a plan that is impossible to implement.     
      4. Discipline can be relaxed until the last day of school has passed.     
      5. The country did not became a real democracy unless the middle    
      of last century.     
      6. It is with read books as with receiving education in social sciences.     
      7. It is with researching historic characters as with communicate with    
      persons of that time.     
      8. I thought it is with accepting the task as with putting it into    
      practice before I assimilated into the society.     
      9. It will be about half a year after you finish the engineering    
      construction supervision.     
      10.It will be about three years of getting to know each other    
      before they decided to marry.     
      【参考答案】    
      1. on―in 2. is―is in 3. think―thinking 4. can―cannot    
      5. unless―until 6. read―reading 7. communicate―communicating    
      8. is―was 9. after―before 10. will be―took    
    

    三、伟人伟招

      1. 克己复礼式    
      The greater the man, the more restrained his anger. (Ovid )    
      人越伟大,越能克制怒火。(奥维德)    
      【点评】通过这句话我们要进一步学习两个类似句型:    
      The + ~er + S. + V., … the + ~er + S. + V. …    
      The + more + adj. + S. + V., … the + more + adj. + S. + V. …(愈…愈…)    
      The harder you work, the more progress you make. 你愈努力,你愈进步。    
      The more books we read, the more learned we become. 我们书读愈多,我们愈有学问。    
    
      2. 聪明易糊涂难式    
      It is easier to fight for principles than to live up to them. (A. E. Stevenson)    
      为原则而斗争容易,按原则的要求活着难。(史蒂文森)    
      【点评】“it is +比较级+to do sth. than to do sth.”是另外一个重要的比较级的句型。    
    

    四、实践与提高

      将下面的句子补充完整:    
      1. There is little doubt that serious attention must be called to the    
      problem of …    
      2. It is necessary that effective action be taken to prevent the    
          
      situation .    
      3. It is hoped that great efforts be taken to control the    
      growth of…    
          
      4. It is hoped that great efforts will be directed towards finding …    
      5. It remains to be seen whether…, but the prospects are (not)    
      very encouraging .    
      6. At any rate, wider attention should be given to the possible    
      consequences of…    
      7. To reverse the trend is not a light task , and it requires a different    
      state of mind towards …    
      8. For these reasons, I strongly recommend that…    
      9. For the reasons given above, I feel that…    
      10. Taking into account the reasons mentioned above, we can confidently come to a    
      conclusion that….    
          
    
    

    其他经典句型(3)
    一、经典句型展示

      1. They say that she is a movie star. 据说她是个电影明星。    
      【分析】 they say… = it is said that,表示“据说…的”意思。其中they = people, I heard 也表示相同意思。    
      2. This is the reason why he became so involved in the suicide case. 他因为这个原因而卷入那个自杀案。    
      【分析】① This is the reason why=this is…表示“这就是为什么的原因”,“因为这个原因而…”的意思,why是一个关系副词。② This is the way how…=thus,与this is the reason why类似的句型,表示“因此而…”的意思,先行词the way与the reason一样也可以省略。    
      3. The plane flew higher and higher, till at last it disappeared from my sight. 飞机飞得越来越高,并终于从我的视线中消失。    
      【分析】…, till (will) at last…=…, and at last…,表示“…终于…”的意思。一般来说,在till的前面,通常会有逗号将其分开。    
      4. He grabbed at straws but he could not reach it. 他想抓住救命稻草,但够不着。    
      【分析】to grab at straws表示的是“抓住救命稻草”,它也可以引用为“(为脱险)求助了任何救急办法”的意思。To grab at straws= to grasp\ reach for straws.    
      5. To my great surprise, he played the piano well. 令人感到惊讶的是,他钢琴弹得很棒。    
      【分析】to one’s surprise=to the surprise of…是表示“令人感到惊讶的是…”的意思。类似的句型有:to one’s joy令人感到高兴的是,to one’s sorrow令人感到悲哀的是,to one’s satisfaction令人感到满意的是,to one’s disappointment令人感到失望的是。    
    

    二、练习与进步

      A. 翻译    
      1. 据说,人类是生物学上最无法归类的物种,因为人类拥有其他天然物种所缺少的特性。    
      2. 据说,美国人于1787年制定的“联邦条款”是为当时政府运作提供的一个模式。    
      3. 这就是为什么他不想接受这个事实的原因。    
      4. 我因此而辞掉了在那家公司的工作。    
      5. 他们的言辞争论着,渐渐地,他们变得激动,终于其中有一个做出了鲁莽的行动。    
      6. 令所有出席的人都感到惊讶的是,这位英雄忽然不见了。    
      7. 当我刚好六岁半的时候,某个早上,孩子们正在吃早餐时,被告知不准再到处乱跑,当时大家都很惊慌。    
          
      8. 像所有政客一要,他说他要为人民做好事,可是我怀疑他是另有个人的打算。    
      9. 依我看来,你在你妈妈面前表现得太无礼了。    
      10. 她的新的夜礼服是巴黎时装中最新潮的。    
      【参考答案】    
      1. They say that man is the least biologically determined species of all because he possesses features absent in other natural species.    
      2. I heard that the Americans drew up their “Articles of Confederation” in 1781 in order to provide a working form of government.    
      3. This is the reason why he did not want to accept the fact.    
      4. This is the way I resigned from the job in that company.    
      5. They argued with hot words and gradually they got excited, until at last one of them resorted to reckless measures.    
      6. To the surprise of all present, the hero was gone.    
      7. I was just about half-way through my sixth year when one morning at breakfast we children were informed to our utter dismay that we could no longer be permitted to run absolutely wild.    
      8. Like all politicians, he says he wants to do good for people, but I think he has an axe to grind.    
      9. From my perspective, I think you behaved rudely before your mom.    
      10. Her new evening dress is the last word in Paris fashion.    
      B. 改错    
      1. It is say that she is a movie star.     
      2. They tell that there will be a heavy storm tomorrow.     
      3. This is the way which I saw the results.     
      4. This is the reason that why she could not receive a normal    
      school education.     
      5. After suffering from the hurt, at finally he stood up and    
      decided to start from the very beginning.     
      6. He ran faster and faster, till last he reached the destination first.     
      7. The poor man was simply just reaching into straws when he    
      took his dying wife to another doctor.     
      8. She walked fast, till at last she caught up the train on time.     
      9. To the surprise, the taste was not as he had imagined it.     
      10. To the joy by his mother, he won first prize.     
      【参考答案】    
      1. say―said 2. tell―say 3. which―that 4. 去掉why    
      5. finally―last 6. till后加at 7. into―at 8. up后加to     
      9. the―his 10. by―of   
    

    三、伟人伟招

      1. If there were less sympathy in the world, there would be less trouble in the world. (O. Wilde)    
      如果世界上少一些同情,世界上也就会少一些麻烦。(王尔德)    
      【点评】“if there were less/more…, there would be less/more….”是一个虚拟语气句型,在四级里面用一下可以给你的文章增色不少。    
      2. The most exhausting thing in life is being insincere. (A. M. Lindbergh)    
      生活中最使人筋疲力尽的事是弄虚作假。(林德伯格)    
      【点评】“the most exhausting / terrible thing is …”句型要掌握。我们再进一步学两个常用的最高级句型:    
      …the + ~est +n.+ (that) +S.+ have ever + seen (known/heard/had/read, etc)    
      …the most+ adj. +n.+ (that) +S.+ have ever + seen (known/heard/ had/read, etc)    
      Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen.    
      海伦是我所看过最美丽的女孩。    
      Mr. Chang is the kindest teacher that I have ever had.    
      常老师是我曾经遇到的最仁慈的教师。    
      3. It is discouraging to think how many people are shocked by honesty and how few by deceit. (N. Coward)    
      令人沮丧的是,有那么多人对诚实感到吃惊,而对欺骗感到吃惊的人却那么的    
      少。(科沃德)    
      【点评】对什么现象和观点不满或者不同意时,可以使用,是加分句型。   
    

    四、实践与提高

      补充练习:将下列句子翻成汉语,注意总结句子结构。    
      1. Whereas other societies look to the past for guidance, we cast our nets forward.(面向未来)    
      2. It is the belief in a brighter future that gives us optimism.    
      3. Even these days, when not all progress seems positive (nuclear weapons, air pollution, unemployment, etc.), the belief remains that for every problem there is a rational solution.    
      4. The job of parents is to give children every opportunity while they are growing up and then get out of their way.    
      5. What deference people in authority do command is based on their actual powers rather than on their age, wisdom, or dignity.    
          
    
    其他经典句型(4)    

    一、经典句型展示

      1. He is the wisest infant that ever lived. 他是个前所未见的聪明的小婴孩。    
      【分析】“the wisest man that ever live”是从最高级+that ever的结果强化出来的,表示“之前所活的最聪明的人”,即“前所未见的聪明人”的意思。    
      2. There were two persons coming toward me: the former was my uncle, the latter was my father. 有两个人朝我走过来,前面的是我叔叔,后面的是我父亲。    
      【分析】①“the former…the latter …”是表示“前者…后者…”的意思。②“the one…the other…”可以表示“相近”的意思。③“this…that…”同样表示“相近”的意思,即“前者…后者…”,但这时候this…that…的顺序是相反,请特别留意。    
      3. She is the last person to leave her parents. 她是个绝不离开她父母的人。    
      【分析】“the last man+动词不定式”,表示“绝不…的人”的意思。动词不定式有时可以用that引导的从句来代替。    
      4. The moment you understand this, you will only have further difficulties. 只要你一了解这规则,就不会有困难。    
      【分析】① the moment=as soon as,表示“一…就…”的意思,它起到一个连接词的作用,引导条件状语从句。the instant也具有相同的用法。② immediately、directly等副词,也同样是一个用来表示“…就…”的连接词。    
      5. The nearer the dawn, the darker the night. 越接近黎明,夜就越黑。    
      【分析】the more…the more…,是一个“the +比较级…the +比较级…”的句型,表示“愈…就愈…”的意思,注意:这时的the不是定冠词,而是一种副词。   
    

    二、练习与进步

      A. 翻译    
      1. 他是个我所见过的最固执己见的人。    
      2. 乘火车旅行比乘飞机旅行更便宜且更有趣,因此大多数人喜欢选择前者更胜于后者。    
      3. 娱乐与工作对我们的健康都很必要,前者让我们得以放松,后者则给我们的活力。    
      4. 对于这件事,我的父亲是绝对不会考虑的。    
      5. 只要你一踏进“事实”的世界,你就踏进了“限度”的世界。    
      6. 知道并不表示智慧,许多人知道不少事情,结果却反而更笨。    
      7. 一个人如果没有足够的见识,知道得越多,对他反而越坏。    
      8. 新闻记者是个绝对不会说广告无效的人。    
      9. 人们对自己的世界所知愈少,就对自己周围的事愈无法控制与了解。    
      【参考答案】    
      1. He is the most persistent man I have ever seen.    
      2. Traveling by train is cheaper and more interesting than traveling by air, therefore most people prefer the former over the latter.    
      3. Amusement and work are both necessary to our health; the former can give us relaxation and the latter can give us energy.    
      4. My father was the last man to take into consideration issues concerning this matter.    
      5. The moment you step into the world of facts, you step into the world of limits.    
      6. To know is not to be wise. Many men know a great deal, and are all the greater fools for it.    
      7. If one hasn’t got plenty of common sense, the more science he has, the worse for him.    
      8. A journalist would be the last person to say that there is not any virtue in advertisement.    
      9. The less man knew about his world, the less subject to his control or understanding were the events which surrounded him.    
      B. 改错    
      1. This is the larger elephant that I have ever seen.     
      2. He is bravest person that I have ever encountered.     
      3. Tom and Betty went to school. One arrived at seven o’clock    
      and another arrived at half past seven.     
      4. Health is above wealth, for it can give as much happiness.     
      5. We were last people to approve the opinion.     
      6. He is the last person that I expected to see.     
      7. As soon it turns red, it will become edible.     
      8. That moment you get in, nothing can hit you.     
      9. The hard the conflict, the more glorious the triumph.     
      10. The more we study, the many we discover our ignoramus.     
      【参考答案】    
      1. larger―largest 2. is―is the 3. another―the other 4. for it―for nothing.    
      5. last―the last 6. is―was 7. As soon―As soon as    
      8. That moment―The moment 9. hard―harder 10. the many―the more    
    

    三、伟人伟招

      1. 力劈华山式    
      I’ve never any pity for conceited people, because I think they carry their comfort about with them. (George Eliot )    
      我从不怜惜自负的人们,因为我觉得他们无处不能自我安慰。(艾略特)    
      【点评】该句型用来直接表达自己的观点再好不过。    
    
      2. 最好最坏式    
      The worst tragedy for a poet is to be admired through being misunderstood. (J. Cocteau)    
      对于诗人来说,最大的悲剧莫过于由于误解而受到钦佩。(科克托)    
      【点评】“the + best\worst\most effective way\measure is to…”结构结合该句学习。    
    
      3. 少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲式    
      If you do not learn to think when you are young, you may never learn. (Edison)    
      如果你年轻时不学会思考,那就永远不会。(爱迪生)    
      【点评】这是个很好的警告别人、指出危害的句型。    
      看到各位大师的作品后,长江后浪推前浪,我们再加强学习9个简单实用的句型。    
      ① Get into the habit of + Ving = make it a rule to + V.(养成…的习惯)    
      We should get into the habit of keeping good hours. 我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。    
      ② Due to/Owing to/Thanks to + n./Ving, …(因为…)    
      Thanks to his encouragement, I finally realized my dream.    
      因为他的鼓励,我终于实现我的梦想。    
      ③ For the past + 时间,S. + 现在完成式…(过去…年来,…一直…)    
      For the past two years, I have been busy preparing for the examination.    
      过去两年来,我一直忙着准备考试。    
      ④ be + forced/compelled/obliged + to + V.(不得不…)    
      Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to give up doing sports. 既然考试迫在眉睫,我不得不放弃做运动。    
      ⑤ It is time + S. + 过去式(该是…的时候了)    
      It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems.    
      该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。    
      ⑥ By +Ving, …can…(借着…,…能够…)    
      By exercising, we can always stay healthy.    
      借着做运动,我们能够始终保持健康。    
      ⑦ …enable + Object(受词)+ to + V.(…使…能够…)    
      Listening to music enables us to feel relaxed. 听音乐使我们能够感觉轻松。    
      ⑧ There is no doubt that + 句子…(毫无疑问地…)    
      There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be desired.    
      毫无疑问地,我们的教育制度令人不满意。    
      或者:There is no denying that + S. + V.…(不可否认地…)    
      There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse.    
      不可否认地,我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。    
      ⑨ …cannot emphasize the importance of…too much. (再怎么强调…的重要性也不为过。)    
      We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.    
      我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。  
    

    四、实践与提高

      补充练习:将下列句子翻成汉语,注意总结句子结构。    
      1. In a society that changes as fast as ours, experience simply does not have the value that it does in more stagnant societies.    
      2. It has taken a long time to convince the public that free enterprise does not mean that a company should be free to pollute the air, foul the rivers, and destroy the forests.    
      3. Equipped with the money, one can acquire the taste, style, and ideas that mark each class and launch a quick ascent of the social ladder.    
      4. No one could seriously think that anyone who grows up poor, lives in a bad neighborhood, and attends an inferior school has an opportunity equal to that of someone more favored.    
      5. As the case illustrates, competition takes four general forms: …
    

    其他经典句型(5)
    一、经典句型展示

      1. She can speak seven foreign languages to say nothing of her English. 她能讲七种外国语言,更不用说英语了。    
      【分析】①“say nothing of…”是用来表示“更不用说是…”的意思。②“not to speak of…”与“no to mention…”也是用来表示相同的意思。③“not to say…”则表示“即使不能说…”的意思。    
      2. To tell the truth, I don’t like her at all. 说实在话,我一点也不喜欢她。    
      【分析】① to tell the truth= to say the truth,是用来表示“说实在话”、“说老实话”的意思,它是一个独立主格结构,用来修饰整个句子。② to be frank with you(坦白地说),to make a long story short(简单地说),to do one justice(公平的说),与to tell the truth是个相类似的句型。    
      3. When I was a boy, I was too cowardly to go out at might. 当我还是个小孩时,我太胆小以致夜晚不敢出门。    
      【分析】① too…to…= so…that…cannot…,表示“太…以致无法…”的意思;② too…for+意义上的主语+to…的句型也表示相同的意思。    
      4. This mountain is twice as large as that one. 这座山大约是那座山的两倍高。    
      【分析】① twice as large as 是表示“两倍的大小”的意思。当twice改为three times four times…时,则表示“三倍、四倍…”的意思,此外“as+adj.+as”结构还可用“as+adv.+as”表达;②“…as+adj.+n.+as…”也可以表示同样的意思。   
    

    二、练习与进步

      A. 翻译    
      1. 她种植了各种不同类型的珍贵花卉,更不用说是玫瑰和茉莉花了。    
      2. 不能花太短的时间来完成关系一生的大事。    
      3. 说实在话,他二十年前没能接受到正规学校教育。    
      4. 中国超过日本二十倍大的面积。    
      5. 她肯定在做白日梦,看起来她的心思好像在千里的地方。    
      6. 不知道是由于我太以自我为中心或是太孤僻,以致总是无法和我所认识的人成为坦诚相交的朋友。    
      7. 一般来说,在我们太空时代的幼年期,人类对太空的探索,就是靠其想象力。    
      8. 他大意是说:“同样一个象征符号不同的文化中却有着不同的含意”。    
      9. 东京的人口是日本人口的十分之一。    
      10. 他的年龄是我的三倍。    
      【参考答案】    
      1. She raised quite different kinds of precious flowers to say nothing of roses and jasmine.    
      2. Take not too short a time to do well something that will influence you all through your life.    
      3. To tell the truth, he did not receive a normal education twenty years ago.    
      4. The land area of China is more than twenty times larger than that of Japan.    
      5. Her head was certainly in the clouds: she looked like her mind was a thousand miles away.    
      6. I’m either too self-centered or too reserved to be on confidential terms with anyone I know at all well.    
      7. In the early years of our space age, generally speaking, man’s exploits in space relied upon his imagination.    
      8. He speaks to the effect that the same symbol can carry different implications in different cultures.    
      9. The population of Tokyo is one-tenth of Japan’s as a whole.    
      10. He is three times as old as me.    
      B. 改错    
      1. He is three times old as me.     
      2. The exhibition this time attracted two as many visitors as the last time.     
      3. The question was enough complicated for me to answer.     
      4. He walked very fast for me to follow him.     
      5. Tell the truth, I can only lend you 500 yuan.     
      6. To be frank at you, he tried his best.     
      7. You want to be the champion? I think you are crying into the moon.     
      8. He has much experience, to say everything of knowledge.     
      9. She is pretty, nothing to say of her humor.     
      10. To tell truth, he is an honest man and can work well under pressure.     
      【参考答案】    
      1. old前加as 2. two―twice 3. enough―too 4. very―too    
      5. Tell―To tell 6. at―with 7. into―at 8. everything―nothing    
      9. nothing to say―to say nothing 10. truth―the truth    
    

    三、伟人伟招

      1. 授人以渔式    
      In education we are striving not to teach youth to make a living, but to make a life.(W. A. White)    
      教育不是为了教会青年人谋生,而是教会他们创造生活。(怀特)    
      【点评】该结构可以用来代替trying to,令你的文章更富魅力。    
    
      2. 热血青年式    
      I would rather see a young man blush than turn pale. (M. P. Cato )    
      我宁可看到青年人脸红,也不愿看到他脸色变得苍白。(加图)    
      【点评】would rather…than…(宁可…,也不…句)型。   
    
      3. 言论自由式    
      I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. (Voltaire)    
      我不同意你说的话,但我愿意誓死捍卫你说话的权利。(伏尔泰)    
      【点评】I disapprove of…, but I will… 表示不同意某一观点,然后给自己留下余地。    
      看到各位大师的作品后,长江后浪推前浪,我们再加强学习10个简单实用的句型。    
      ① Leave much to be desired(令人不满意)    
      The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired.    
      我们的交通状况令人不满意。    
      ② Have a great influence on…(对…有很大的影响)    
      Smoking has a great influence on our health. 抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。    
      ③ do good to(对…有益),do harm to(对…有害)    
      Reading does good to our mind. 读书对心灵有益。    
      Overworking does harm to one’s health. 工作过度对健康有害。    
      ④ Pose a great threat to…(对…造成一大威胁)    
      Pollution poses a great threat to our existence. 污染对我们的生存造成一大威胁。    
      ⑤ do one’s utmost to + V. = do one’s best(尽全力去…)    
      We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life.    
      我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标。    
      ⑥ It pays to + V.…(…是值得的)    
      It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。    
      ⑦ be based on(以…为基础)    
      The progress of society is based on harmony.    
      社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。    
      ⑧ Spare no effort to + V.(不遗余力地)    
      We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.    
      我们应该不遗余力地美化我们的环境。    
      ⑨ bring home to + 人 + 事(让…明白…事)    
      We should bring home to people the value of working hard.    
      我们应该让人们明白努力的价值。    
      ⑩ be closely related to…(与…息息相关)    
      Exercising is closely related to health. 做运动与健康息息相关。  
    

    四、实践与提高

      补充练习:将下列句子翻成汉语,注意总结句子结构。    
      1. Moreover, both common sense and our experiences with children inform us that people tend to mimic the language and behavior they are exposed to.    
      2. Those who advocate unbridled individual expression might point out that the right of free speech is intrinsic to a democracy and necessary to its survival.    
      3. The suggested reason for buying the car is obvious: it is the intelligent choice.    
      4. The lesson here is that advertising, in itself, probably will not achieve as great of an importance as art.    
      5. Common sense tells us that a photographer can succeed by working in media.
    

    第九部分.作文训练

    一、记叙文的思路与练习
    1)记叙文
    以叙述人物的经历和事物的发展变化过程为主要表现形式的一种文体。记叙文既可以以写人为主,又可以以写事为主。写记叙文要注意记叙文的“六大要素”即:

    时间(When)—— 何时发生,有没有具体时间?    
    地点(Where)—— 何地发生,有没有地点变化?    
    人物(Who)—— 何人参与,谁是主角?    
    事件(What)—— 发生了什么,有何特点?    
    原因(Why)—— 事件的起因?    
    结果(How)—— 事件的经过及结局?    
    一般说来,在一篇记叙文中这六大要素是缺一不可的。    
    记叙文的思路就围绕这六大要素充分展开。    
    【例】四级考试中,只出现过一次专门的记叙文体裁的写作,即“An Early Morning Walk”(1988.6.),2003年6月出现过包含记叙文的作文,即“An Eye-Witness Account of a Traffic Accident”。    
    对于“An Early Morning Walk”,知道命题要求后,我们就要开始构思了。    
    When:题目已规定了是“清晨”,在这个时候,“我”去散步。    
    Where:到哪儿散步?去公园?在校园里?在街上(街上空气不好,还是不去!)。    
    Who:在公园里看到晨练的人:中老年人、年轻人、小孩子;在校园里看到读书背单词的学生。    
    What:人们热火朝天地做操,随音乐跳舞,打球,等等。    
    Why:清晨空气清新,适合锻炼;一日之际在于晨,背背书,读读单词。    
    当然,由这个题目可以令人想到很多东西,因篇幅所限,我们做了删减。    
          
    2)参考范文    
    An Early Morning Walk    
    One morning I got up very early, and everything around was very quiet. The sun had just risen, shining brilliantly and everything seemed to be covered with a layer of golden silk. There were only some birds singing occasionally in the tall trees. I strolled along the street toward the park, breathing the fresh air and feeling extremely happy.    
    When I arrived at the park, I found, to my surprise, that there were so many people there. Men and women, boys and girls, all were enjoying themselves in their various activities. Some were doing morning exercises, some were playing badminton and some old people were having their tea while talking to each other cheerfully.    
    I wandered around the park. To my delight, I found a few middle-school students talking to each other in English in one corner of the park. I went up and spoke to them in English. We soon became friends. I was very glad to find another opportunity to practice my spoken English. On the way home, I realized that an early morning walk really was good and healthful. Taking early morning walks makes one healthy and wise.    

    【点评】文章按照时间顺序(in chronological order),第一句话点明时间(One morning)、人物(第一人称“I”),并简要描述了早晨的特点(What was the setting),接着第二段第一句话交代地点(in the park),然后介绍公园里人们及作者的活动(What was happening),最后在文章结尾点题,即,归纳中心思想——Taking early morning walks makes one healthy and wise. 仅仅189个单词既满足了记叙文的“六大要素”,又有明确的中心思想和生动的细节,行文方式符合要求。

    1. 以“A Most Unlucky Day”为题,想想该怎么写。注意:题目的中心词是“unlucky”。    
    When,  Where,  Who,  What,  Why:, How。    
    参考思路    
    When:哪一天是最倒霉的日子?考前的晚上?公布成绩的日子?周末?    
    Where:在大街上违章停车?在学校?在商场?在经常光顾的地方——食堂、餐厅、麦当劳、图书馆、溜冰场、投影厅?    
    Who:是我倒霉?是好友?你?那个蛋白质室友?    
    What:拿到罚单?上课上班迟到?失恋?被窃?四级没过?    
    Why:倒霉嘛,无非是运气不好,睡过头了、态度恶劣、偷懒、不刻苦…    
    How:一团糟,挨批,心情极度沮丧,不过也无所谓嘛…    
    想完之后,我们再花点儿功夫将关联的东东挑出来,别忘了本文的中心是“unlucky”。    
    根据自己的思路,写一篇文章:    
          
    参考范文    
    A Most Unlucky Day    
    I had a streak of tough luck yesterday. Everything, it seemed to me, went wrong. And I simply couldn’t understand why all the bad things happened to me in one single day.    
    In the morning, as luck would have it, my alarm clock didn’t ring, and with an aching head I woke up half an hour later than usual. I was in such a hurry that, when making an omelet, I got my fingers burnt and splashed the omelet all over the floor of the kitchen.    
    Having no time for my breakfast at that point, I rushed out of my house with an empty stomach and hurting fingers. I had intended to catch the 7:30 subway, but somehow I couldn’t make it. I became very nervous at the mere thought of being late for my English class, because my English teacher is very strict and demanding, and he gets angry whenever any student is late for his class.    
    After getting off the 7:40 subway, I raced all the way from the station to my school, thinking it would be impossible for me to flag a taxi at this hour of the day. At the corner of the street near my school, I abruptly bumped into a man and, worse luck, broke the glasses I had bought for 500 yuan just last week. With scarcely any time to receive or offer an apology, I just kept on running and running. At long last, I arrived at the school only to find, with great sadness mixed with some relief, that the school was empty and the classrooms were all locked. It was Saturday.    
    My ill luck showed no sign of coming to an end. When I returned home greatly frustrated, I found myself locked out. In my hurry I had forgotten to bring the key with me. Just my luck!    

    【点评】这篇文章按照时间顺序一气呵成。文章的标题、第一句和最后一句都点出了中心思想:“I had a most unlucky day”。故事从作者醒来开始,在慌慌张张中煎蛋卷、赶地铁、急奔学校、撞破眼镜、发现白忙乎了一场,最后猛然清醒——匆忙之中忘了钥匙!整个故事描述得精彩生动,既有动作的细节又有作者内心的感受,让读者也身临其境地体会了倒霉的一天。

    A: 根据以下提示叙述一场交通事故:1)用第一人称;2)短语提示:drive home at about 30 kilometers an hour;it was dark;a small girl chased a dog;not hit her but hit a car in the other direction3)写出作者对此交通意外的感想。    
           
    参考范文    
    Last night I was driving home from work. I had an accident. I was following behind a truck, driving at about 30 kilometers an hour. I was watching the traffic carefully because it was getting dark.    
    Suddenly a small girl ran onto the road from the left. She was chasing a dog and she wasn’t paying any attention to the traffic. I immediately applied the brakes and turned the steering wheel quickly to the right.    
    The girl jumped towards the side of the road as soon as she saw my car. Fortunately I did not hit her, but I hit a car coming in the other direction. Luckily I was not driving very fast so the damage was not serious. It is better to damage a car than to injure a young child, I thought to myself.    
    B: 以第一人称写一篇记叙文,讲述在旅行中经历的一件小事。    
          
    参考范文    
    Go on a Mediterranean Journey    
    My wife and I have always enjoyed traveling by sea,and last year we decided to go on a Mediterranean journey. Although our holiday was rather expensive we thought that the high standard of accommodation, the first-class food and the many interesting places we saw were well worth the price we paid.    
    We found that most of the other passengers were friendly and interesting, but there was one man, a Mr. James, who irritated and annoyed us. Whatever subject we talked about, it seemed that he was an expert at it. He had, apparently, read more books, visited more countries and studied more languages, than anyone else had. After a few days, we ate our meals in silence, because nobody wanted to begin a conversation that would soon be taken over by this man.    
    Then my wife had an idea. She suggested that we might think of an unusual subject, look it up in an encyclopedia and then talk about it at dinner. If it were an unusual subject, Mr. James could not possibly know anything about it. The subject we chose was “English Agriculture in the Eleventh Century.” At dinner that night we discussed this subject with great enthusiasm. Mr. James was silent. We realized we had at last come to find something he knew nothing about.    
          
    

    二、说明文的思路与练习

    说明文是用言简意赅的语言来介绍客观事物,讲清事理,并给人增加知识的一种文体。说明文解说事物的特点、发展变化规律,分析前因后果,目的在于使读者“明白事理”,获得必要的信息,对事物有个较完整明晰的了解和认识。说明文不同于记叙文和议论文,它重在给人介绍,让人明白,因而,轻“情义”重事实。说明文与议论文关系密切,有人将其统称为议论文。但在写作的目的和方法上两者仍有区别。说明文主要是通过事实客观地解释或说明事物本身;而议论文则以事实、数据等为证据,表明主观见解,使读者信服或赞同某一观点。    
    历年四级考试中的“How I Overcome Difficulties in Learning English”、“My Ideal Job”以及图表作文的第一段都属于说明文的范畴,如,2002年6月的根据坐标图写题为“Students Use of Computers”的作文。    
    说明文必须按一定的顺序进行说明:时间顺序、空间顺序、逻辑顺序或认识顺序,选择具体的特点和细节来说明。    

    所以,说明文的思路要围绕说明顺序、事物的特点和细节展开。例如:

    范文点评    
    A Famous Clock    
    When you visit London, one of the first things you will see is Big Ben, the famous clock which can be heard all over the world on the B.B.C. If the Houses of Parliament had not been burned down in 1834, the great clock would never have been erected. Big Ben takes its name from Sir Benjamin Hall who was responsible for the making of the clock when the new Houses of Parliament were being built. It is not only of immense size, but is extremely accurate as well. Officials from Greenwich Observatory have the clock checked twice a day. On the B.B.C. you can hear the clock when it is actually striking because microphones are connected to the clock tower. Big Ben has rarely gone wrong. Once, however, it failed to give the correct time. A painter who had been working on the tower hung a pot of paint on one of the hands and slowed it down!    

    【点评】这是《新概念英语》中的一篇经典说明文,介绍了世界著名的“大本钟”。文章开篇指明该钟位于英国伦敦,且全世界的人们通过BBC就能够听到钟声。接下来讲述了“大本钟”的由来,特点——不仅外型巨大,而且走时准确,在结尾处讲了“大本钟”的一个幽默的小插曲——油漆工把油漆桶挂在指针上,把钟弄慢了。细读这篇文章,我们不难发现,区区159个单词就把“大本钟”的光辉形象牢牢地刻在读者的脑海里,为什么?本文基于事实,分析了主题的来龙去脉,语言简洁又不失生动贴切,作者态度客观又充满幽默,使读者既“明白了事理”,又对事物有较完整明晰的了解认识,此乃说明文之真谛也。

    以“Goals”为题打开一篇说明文的思路。    
    参考思路    
    1)目标的分类:(可根据时间顺序,空间顺序、逻辑顺序或认识顺序,任选一个进行分类和排列)    
    2)各个类别的特点和细节:    
    3)组织成文:    
           
    
    范文点评    
    Goals    

     Everyone has goals. Many people do not reach their goals for lack of planning. These three sets of goals should be developed: lifetime, intermediate and short term.

    Lifetime goals should be written out. These goals should be clear and reasonable. For instance, the goal to win a research prize is clear and measurable. Other lifetime goals might include publishing a certain number of influential books or articles, earning a departmental chairmanship at a major university, successfully competing for a grant from the National Science Foundation or securing a consultantship with a big corporation.    
    Intermediate goals relate to outcomes during the next few years. For the beginning doctoral student, intermediate goals may include completion of course work and preparation of a doctoral research proposal. Like lifetime goals, these are measurable and clearly stated.    
    Short-term goals involve outcomes expected during the next 12 months. These goals are more performance oriented, and they help with achievement of intermediate goals. Examples of short-term goals are earning an A in a course, learning how to program a computer or performing an experiment.    
    【点评】本文介绍了人生的三种目标:终生的、长期的和短期的目标。在文中采用了说明文常用的方法:定义、举例、分类和比较等。    

    对这些方法我们要了解并且掌握:

    1. 定义法(definition)    
    定义法是用下定义的方式去揭示事物本质特征或概念内涵。它能使读者迅速抓住本质属性和基本特点。此法的句型:    

    ① … is a/the … of … which/that …② … relate to/involve/refer to …
    【例】
    (1)Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols which is used for human communication. 语言是人类用来交际的任意性的语音符号体系。
    (2)Intermediate goals relate to outcomes during the next few years.
    (3)Short-term goals involve outcomes expected during the next 12 months.

    2. 举例法(illustration)    
    举例法就是举出实际事例来说明事物的方法,是最常见,往往也是最有效的阐释模式。    
    专家提醒,举例时应挑选具体、典型且有能力表达清楚的例子,并注意按照一定的顺序编排。    

    请看上述范文第二段:“For instance”引出“lifetime goals”的实例,如,赢得研究奖金、出版有影响书或文章、获得大学的系主任职位、获得国家自然科学基金及大公司稳定的顾问职位。

    3. 分类法(classification)    

    分类法就是把说明的对象,按一定的标准划分成不同类别分别加以说明的方法。如:上述范文介绍人生的三种目标,并按照时间的长短对终生目标、长期目标和短期目标做了分类说明。

    4. 比较法(comparison)    
    比较法是用一个事物和与其有联系的其他事物加以对比的说明方法。目的是为了帮助读者准确地区分事物,通过对比达到对该事物的深刻认识。    
    如:上述范文对三种人生目标在时间上和实际操作上进行了比较,并阐明了彼此的联系。    

    (1)Lifetime goals should be written out.
    (2)Like lifetime goals, these are measurable and clearly stated.
    (3)These goals are more performance oriented, and they help with achievement of intermediate goals.

    5. 数字法(statistics)    
    数字法是运用数据来表明事物的本质和特点,准确合理的数据使文章精确可信。    
    【例】    
    (1)Nearly half of all Americans over age 20 wear a bridge or denture,and more than 20 percent have complete upper and lower denture. By age 50, one out of every two persons has gum disease.    
    (2)And it seems sensible to wait. One quarter of all marriages between people under twenty-one end in divorce. In Britain in 1972, there were 124,248 divorces.    

    说明文的说明方法除上面介绍的常见的几种以外,还有诸如分项法、列举法、比喻法及引用法等,只有综合运用多种说明方法,才能多角度、多层次地全面、清晰、准确地展示客观事物的本来面貌。

    6. 借助说明文的构思方法,看看下列题目该如何写:    

    (1)The Layout of a Hospital

    Direction: You are asked to write a composition about “The Layout Of a Hospital”. Locate some important departments in the hospital based on the picture and information given below. Your compositions should be no less than 100 words.    
    1)the Emergency Department    
    2)the Out-patient Department    
    3)the Surgery Department    
    4)Dispensary/Pharmacy    
    5)Physician Department    
    6)the Eye, Ear, and Throat Department    
    7)the Dental Department    
    8)the Laboratory    
    9)the X-ray Department    
    10)the Administrative Building    
    11)the Ward    
          
    参考范文    
    Near the gate, on the west side of the road is the Emergency Department. Opposite the Emergency Department across the Main Road is the Out-patient Department. The building to the southwest of the lake is the Dispensary, which faces the Surgery Department lying on the other side of the road. Along the west wall, from south to north, stand three buildings: the Physician Department, the Eye, Ear, and Throat Department, and the Dental Department. The Laboratory is to the northwest of the round about, and beside the Laboratory, the X-ray Department is located on the same side of the road.    
    A winding road by the lake leads to the Ward. Near the end of the main road, the Administrative Building is situated on the east side. The hospital is nicely and conveniently laid out.    
    1. How to Lose Weight    

    思路提示:第一段先综述现象:大家都想保持身材要求减肥。第二段介绍多余的体重在身体中形成的原因。第三段提出相应的减肥方法。在最后一段,提出总结性的看法,指出减肥的要诀就是:减少摄入的卡路里,通过运动增加卡路里的消耗量。

    参考范文    
    How to Lose Weight    
    A beautiful and healthy figure is everyone’s dream. However, not everyone can easily fulfill this dream. Overweight people often have to find precise ways to lose weight.    
    For normal healthy people, weight is gained by taking in more calories than the body needs. Therefore, if you want to lose weight, you either have to eat fewer calories or find ways to use up more calories you take in. Dieting is probably the most popular way of losing weight, because when on a diet, you are taking fewer calories.    
    However, the body needs many elements in order to stay healthy, and “fad” or starvation diets are bad because they are not nutritiously balanced. A better way of dieting is to keep track of everything you eat, either by your own careful choices or by buying, for a week at a time, the packaged meals sold by some diet companies. If you do not normally exercise, you should also begin sensible exercises for your age and lifestyle to help your body use up surplus calories.    

    In short, a combined effort of reducing the calories you eat and using up more calories than usual through exercises should help you shed off part of your body.

    三、议论文的思路与练习(1)

    议论文又称论说文,是一种既常见又十分重要的文体。在四级作文考试中运用得最多。议论文通常采用摆事实讲道理的方式,围绕着某一个有争议的观点展开论证,陈述各种理由,表明作者立场、阐明作者观点看法。在文章中要明确地表明赞成什么、反对什么,用词不能模棱两可,必须明确肯定。议论文的三要素是论点、论据和论证,其中论点要鲜明,论据要合理、恰当、充分,论证过程要逻辑严密。    

    关于记叙文的思路打开,我这里推荐几种方法:

    1. 生活化细节联想法    
    针对大多数相对抽象不好下手的作文题目,我们可以先把作文题同自身联系到一起,把抽象、概括的作文题细化到自己身边,先打开一个突破口,再顺藤摸瓜,进行发散式联想。请看例子:    
    What are your opinions about the advantages and disadvantages of fast food?    
    题目的主体是快餐,方向为利弊处。先不要考虑快餐是好是坏,而应该先考虑你身边的、你知道的快餐究竟有哪些,这些快餐给你或你的家人带来了哪些影响。请看一位同学记录下来的思路。请注意其跳跃性。    
    ① 遍地都是麦当劳、肯德基、永和豆浆、馄饨、油条。    
    ② 每次老爸不在家时,我吃鸡腿汉堡,快,省事、省时间。不用买菜,切菜,做菜,蒸饭,洗碗,擦桌子。    
    不过还是老爸做的饭好吃,吃麦当劳吃不饱。为什么呢?油少,没营养!    
    ③ 永和24小时,但东西贼贵,晚上避风的好地方,粥还行,油条,烂!    
    ④ 麦当劳小孩多,因为玩具多,电视上有很多他们的广告,小孩又哭又笑,学鸡叫的那个广告特傻,……儿童乐园。    
    ⑤ 还是太贵。在美国,垃圾食品,到了中国,特火!洋货?老爸不爱吃汉堡,因有奶酪。不符合中国人的口味,农民就不喜欢,中国有8亿农民……    
    (为了方便大家阅读,我们在录入时加入了一半字数)    
    大家不妨问问自己两个问题:    
    ——上面的东西不够写120字吗?    
    ——上面的东西用英文表达难吗?    
    答案是否定的。试想,有了这个思路,无论怎么写,从哪一个方面写,我们都不缺观点和支持观点的细节性论据。    
         
    写下你对下列题目在生活中的联想(中英文混写)    
    1) Harmfulness of Fake Commodities      

    2) the Influence of the Internet

    2. 逆向思维联想法    
    有一些题目从正面不好罗列素材,总结观点,我们可以从命题的对立面去思考问题,这样往往可以达到意想不到的收获。如果问题是一个东西有什么样的好处,也许这个东西是日常生活中常见的东西,我们早已对其失去了敏感,这个时候不妨想一想如果失去了这个东西,我们的生活会受到哪些影响。试举一例:    
    In 1995, an Englishman killed a burglar who broke into his house. He was sentenced. Do you think he should be sentenced? How can we protect our property?    
    文章的关键在于How can we protect our properties?(我们如何保护自己的财产?)对于大多数同学来讲,对财产的概念还不清楚,谈何保护措施?于是,从反面破题,从我们周围的盗窃想起,请看一位同学的草稿:    
    ① 前两天,丢了钱包,bus上,小偷走了,才有人告诉我,社会公德真有问题。    
    ② 学校的7台电脑CPU丢了,小偷从窗户爬进去的。学校3年都不修,宿舍经常丢鞋、丢衣服。    
    ③ 家里与房地产开发公司打官司,合同有问题。    
    ④ 警察现在都不管事,出了问题才来,没出问题,懒得理你,防患于未然。    
    (为了方便阅读,我们把草稿上的英语译成了汉语)    
    有了上面的几个问题,综合分析保护个人财产的措施也就不难得出了,个人、单位、社会、国家都应采取相应的措施,而论证过程可以从草稿中总结说理,也可以按照草稿上的思路举反例论证。    
    总之,在拓展思维时,一定要避免定向的、大而空的思维模式,应尽量把作文题目大处化小,小处化细,细处才可见真情。    
         
    从事物的反面考虑下列题目,写下浮现在你脑海中的词句:    
    1) Advantages of a Harmonious Family    

    2) The importance of fresh drinking water

    四、议论文的思路与练习(2)

    分类思考法    

    为了尽快地帮助同学们在尽可能短的时间里熟悉四级作文的命题思路,以及在短时间内能够找到合适的论述理由,我们通过分析历年四级考试真题并研究了命题方向,在此基础上总结了四级作文通用的十大思考方向,很多题目要求考生分析某一现象发生原因或可能产生的影响,我们不妨从以下十个方向进行思考,打开思路:

    1) 方便:convenient, convenience    
    相关话题:computer, internet,出外吃饭,电话,城市生活,例如:    
    The Internet is far more convenient and efficient than the written word or other conventional means of conveying meaning.    
    Advertisements can bring convenience to people’s lives.    

    Modern means of transportation make it very convenient for people to travel far or near, thus saving a lot of time and energy.

    2) 效率:efficient, efficiently, efficiency    
    相关话题:计算机和高科技(high-tech devices)减轻了体力劳动(manual labor),解放了人类(liberate humans),让人们有更多的时间从事其他的事情(more time are spent on other necessary matters)等,例如:    
    Advertisements build an efficient and direct link between manufacturers and customers.    

    Modern science and technology make our lives more efficient. A phone call, an e-mail or a fax can all bring people closer and make the world smaller.

    3) 节省和浪费:save time, save money, save space, economical, frugal, frugality; thrift, thrifty waste time\money\space, costly, time-consuming, lavish, 例如:    
    This will help them realize that it is not easy to make money and form the good habit of frugality.     
    There are many other ways for people to know commodities, so it is a waste to invest large sums of money in making advertisements on TV.     
    As for the young and middle-aged, they should make better use of their prime years instead of spending so much time raising pets.     
    It’s a costly and time-consuming hobby. China is a developing country and many people are still below the poverty line. Some children of the right age in poverty-stricken areas can’t afford to go to school.     

    … will be great extravagance of time, energy and money.

    4) 心理与性格:mental health, spiritual health, psychological health, personality, character     
    好的性格 independent, independence, independently, cooperate, cooperative, cooperation, compete, competitive, competition, team spirit, considerate, confident, confidence, confidently, ambition, ambitious, individuality, tolerance, sociable, perseverance, deal with/solve problems by themselves (independent), optimistic     
    坏的性格 overbearing(专横的,傲慢的), selfish, conservative, isolated, conceited(自以为是的), egotistic(自我本位的), arrogant, domineering(作威作福的),overzealous(过分热心的),nihilist(虚无主义的),opportunistic(机会主义的),pessimistic     
    性格的养成:cultivate, foster, develop, encourage, enrich, improve, enhance     
    例如:    
    Taking a part-time job can help cultivate independence and develop a strong sense of responsibility.    
    It will help foster a sense of competition and cooperation, which is quite necessary in one’s future career.    
    Working outside campus can enhance one’s social awareness and help one become more socially adaptable. With this, students are able to keep pace with the outside world.     
    It will do good for building up one’s confidence and offer one a sense of achievement because one can realize his value and capability.     
    Through this experience, students can learn to cooperate and compromise and master interpersonal skills needed for future success.     
    5) 丰富的生活:pleasure, joy, recreation, entertain, entertaining, entertainment, leisure time, interesting, relax, relaxed, relaxation. 对立面:dull, monotonous, tired, bored, tiredness, boring, tiring, fatigue, lonely, loneliness, weary, weariness, too much stress from work(工作压力大),leisure time(业余时间增多),例如:    
    Gazing at the cold flickering screen is a disinteresting and tiring experience. It is not a good way to relax.     
    Some advertisements are of high artistic value, original and well designed; therefore they add to the beauty of our lives.     

    Raising pets is beneficial and joyful.

    6) 环境:environment, environmental, pollute, polluted, pollution, pollutant, poisonous, contaminate, contamination, contaminated, contaminant, dirty, hygiene(卫生),nature(自然)、on good terms with(和谐相处),ruin, destroy(破坏),例如:    
    Some leaflets and handouts are scattered here and there, polluting the environment.     
    Some people are destroying our earth by overexploiting the natural resources for immediate interests.     
    Too many cars running on the streets lead to air pollution and noise pollution.     

    By using the Internet, we can save our natural resources such as forests. It is much more environmentally friendly. The traditional form of books consumes too much wood.

    7) 身体健康:health, physical health, healthy, disease, strong, strength, energetic, energetically,physical fitness(健身),raised awareness of fitness(健康意识的提高),例如:    
    Too much viewing of TV will lead people to a sedentary life lacking adequate exercise, which does harm to their health.     

    Some people may be addicted to netsurfing, which impairs people’s physical and mental health. (eyesight, radiation)

    8) 安全和危险:safe, safety, safely, in safe, danger, dangerous, in danger, risk, hazard, hazardous

    9) 经验:experience, social experience

    10) 发展:    
    学生学习的发展进步:    
    cope with the relationship between part-time jobs and study(大学生能否兼顾学习与工作),practice(如何学习与实践),be prepared for or meet the requirements of future occupations(如何面对未来职业的要求)。    
    经济的发展:    
    economy, create more jobs, increase the tax base, improve society’s welfare,the reform and open-up policies(改革开放政策),economic construction(经济建设),market economy(市场经济),sustainable development(可持续发展),social atmosphere(良好的社会风气),social stability(社会稳定),public order(社会治安),social changes or transformations(社会变革),ideas or thoughts(人们的思想观念)。    
    This exerts a negative impact on one’s study because … occupies much of a student’s valuable time. A student’s sole task is to make good use of his limited time to acquire knowledge and skills which are essential to his future career.    
    Part-time jobs may take up most of students’ valuable time for study and have a pernicious(有害的)effect on their study and overall development.     
    It helps develop the economy, because it helps remove the obstacles in the way of progress and liberate people’s minds.    
    (新变化,新科技)… created more jobs to release the pressure of unemployment.     
    … helps to improve the economic strength.    
         
    从以上十大通用原因中选择合适的来说明下列题目:    
    1. 社会实践的必要性    
    2. 改革四级考试的原因    
    3. 中国人家用汽车发展的优缺点    
    

    五、议论文的思路与练习(3)
    我们今天不妨介绍几种简单易行的打开思路的法子,并不深邃,但却简单易行,易于考生们操作:

    1. 分组思考法:    
    在考虑某种现象的优缺点或影响的时候,如果发现从这种现象本身无法打开思路,不妨从它的受众去考虑。    
    例如在讨论网络的有缺点的时候,我们可以从网络的受众入手,把网络的使用者按照年龄分为:小孩、中青年和老人。分别讨论网络对他们的影响,对小孩:增进知识;对中青年:方便、有效率;对老年人:丰富生活。这样在写作的时候也比较容易,更会让文章显得条理清晰。当然,分组的原则除了年龄外,还有好多别的选择,如职业、性别、国别等等。    
    根据分组思考法写出下列话题的思路:    
    1) no pain, no gain    
    2) the advantages of TV    

    3) the influence of noise in cities

    2. 分层思考法    
    分层思考法和分组思考法原则很类似,只是划分的方法是按照层次的不同。    
    例如:在讨论如何解决全球性缺水的问题的时候,我们可以把解决方法分为:1)政府应该怎么做:制定相关法律;2)社会应该怎么办:鼓励节约用水的精神;3)个人——我,该怎么办:千里之行,始于足下,从我做起。当然也可以有另外的一些分层方法。    
    用分组思考法考虑下列话题并写下自己的思路:    
    1) 如何解决大学校园里的浪费现象    
    2) 如何解决人口问题(Problems of Population)    

    3) 谈论一下举办奥运会的好处

    3. 举例说明法:    
    四级考试的考生都是成年人,很多是大学生,而且四级考试的题材多是和大家的生活相关的,所以有的时候用我们生活当中的例子来说明再好不过了。而且有些作文明确要求考生举例说明。    
      例如:Practice Makes Perfect(1997. 1)中就要求大家以英语学习为例说明。    
          
    参考范文    
    As we all know, practice makes perfect. This is an accumulated experience we inherit from our forefathers, and now it is still widely applied in our daily lives. It proves that the more we practice, the more likely we are going to do things perfectly.    

    A good case in point is the study of English. Take my neighbor, Xiao Wang, as an example. He seldom spends time learning English. As a result, his English is very poor and he has begun to hate English now. On the contrary, I’m very interested in learning English and I spend more than five hours each day on English. So the natural consequence is that I have a good mastery of the language and my interest in it has grown more intense.
    A lesson that we can draw from the above example is obvious. Practice is crucial to our success not only in study, but also in our future work. All in all, practice will make a difference between success and failure. (168 words)

    这里我们列出一些经常用到的句子,希望对大家有所帮助:    
    For example,    
    For instance,    
    It can be given as a concrete example that…    
    Take… as an example. It is a very obvious case.    
    There is one impressive example I want to mention here.    
    Let’s see an example.    
    It is best illustrated using the following example.    
    Let me provide an example.    
    Perhaps the most important example of …is that…    
    As I remember,/ Even to this day, I still remember that…    
    I will never forget…    
    To illustrate this, there is an example that is very persuasive.    
    An instance that accompanies this reason is that…    
    An example can give the details of this argument, …    
    It is a forceful example to demonstrate the importance of…    
    History presented many examples of…    
    In order to see this point clearly, let us see an example.    
    举例说明下列题目:    
    1) Where there is a will, there is a way   
    2) Money is not all-powerful  
    3) the Influence of the Internet    
    

    第十部分.英语谚语警句

    Proverbs are the daughters of daily experience.谚语是日常经验的结晶。

    1. Look before you leap./Second thoughts are best. 三思而后行。/再想而后行。
    2. Great minds think alike; (heroes have similar views.) 英雄所见略同。
    3. We shall never have friends if we expect to find them without fault.欲求完美无缺的朋友必然成为孤家寡人。
    4. What you sow, you must mow. 种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。
    5. A beggar can never be bankrupt.天无绝人之路。
      6.A friend in need is a friend indeed.患难见真情。
    6. No news is good news. 没有消息就是好消息。
    7. No cross, no crown. 不经历风雨,怎么见彩虹。
    8. The more haste, the less speed. /Haste makes waste.欲速则不达。
    9. Victory belongs to the most persevering. 坚持就是胜利!
    10. A young idler, an old beggar. 少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。
    11. Put one’s foot in one’s mouth. 说话不得体。
    12. It is no use crying over spilt milk.覆水难收/悔恨已晚/木已成舟,回天乏力。
    13. Content is better than riches. 知足常乐。
    14. No gains without pains. 没有辛苦就没有收获。
    15. The more a man knows, the more he is inclined to be modest. 大智若愚。
    16. All roads lead to Rome .条条大路通罗马。
    17. A snow year, a rich year. 瑞雪兆丰年。
    18. Never say die! 永不言败!
    19. The best mirror is a friend’s eye. 朋友的眼睛是最好的镜子。
    20. Faith will move mountain. 精诚所至,金石为开。
    21. A life without a friend is a life without a sun. 人生没有朋友,犹如生活没有了太阳。
    22. Great wits have short memories.贵人多忘事。
    23. Do well and have well. 善有善报。
    24. A bad thing never dies. 坏事传千年。
    25. Four eyes see more than two. 人多识广/集思广益。
    26. Diligence is the parent of success. 勤劳是成功的根本。
    27. Water dropping day by day wears the hardest rock away.滴水穿石。
    28. Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst. 抱最好的愿望,做最坏的打算。
    29. While there is life, there is hope. /Debt is better than death. 留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。/有生命就有希望。
    30. Where there is a will, there is a way. 功夫不负有心人。/有志者事竟成。
    31. Where there is great love, there are always miracles. 哪里有真爱存在,哪里就有奇迹。
    32. Where there is smoke, there is fire. 无风不起浪。
    33. One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.一个和尚挑水喝,两个和尚抬水喝,三个和尚没水喝。
    34. A stitch in time saves nine. 及时缝一针能省九针。/小洞不补,大洞吃苦。
    35. Never too old to learn, never too late to turn. 亡羊补牢,为时不晚。
    36. Don’t claim to know what you don’t know. 不要不懂装懂。
    37. Do in Rome as Roman do. 入乡随俗。
    38. Rome was not built in a day. 冰冻三尺,非一日之寒。
    39. Sharpening your axe will not delay your job of cutting wood. 磨刀不误砍柴工。
    40. Things of a kind come together, people a mind fall into a group. 物以类聚,人以群分。
    41. One man’s meat is another man’s poison. 萝卜白菜,各有所爱。
    42. like author like book.文如其人。
    43. Like for like. 惺惺相息。
    44. Like teacher like pupil. 有其师必有其徒。
    45. Gods that run many hares kill none.贪多必失。
    46. Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。
    47. Actions speak louder than words. 行胜于言。
    48. You cannot eat your cake and have it. 鱼与熊掌,不可兼得。
    49. One loses by pride and gains by modesty. 满招损,谦受益。
    50. Love me, love my dog. 爱屋及乌。
    51. An apple a day keeps the doctor away. 每日一苹果远离医生。
    52. Time past cannot be called back again. 时光不倒流。
    53. A drop of water cannot make a sea, and a tree cannot make a wood. 滴水不成海,独木不成林。
    54. If you venture nothing, you will have nothing. 不入虎穴,焉得虎子。
      58.The tree is known by its fruit. 观其行知其人。
    55. All work no play makes Jack a dull boy. 只会用功不玩耍,聪明的孩子也变傻。
    56. The pot calls the kettle black. 五十步笑百步。
    57. Unkindness often reacts on the unkind person. 恶有恶报。
    58. Today’s work should never be left over till tomorrow. 今日事今日毕。
    59. Nothing so bad but might have been worse. 塞翁失马,焉知非福。
    60. God helps those who help themselves. 自助者天助。
    61. Complacency is the enemy of study. 学习的敌人是自己的满足。
    62. A fox may grow gray, but never good.江山易改,本性难移。
    63. A friend without faults will never be found. 没有十全十美的朋友。
    64. A good beginning is half done. 良好的开端是成功的一半。
    65. A good book is the best of friends, the same today and forever. 一本好书,相伴一生。
    66. A good medicine tastes bitter. 良药苦口。
    67. A leopard cannot change its spots.积习难改。
    68. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. 一知半解,自欺欺人。
    69. All good things come to an end. 天下没有不散的筵席。
    70. Justice has long arms. 天网恢恢,疏而不漏。
      75.A man becomes learned by asking questions. 不耻下问才能有学问。
    71. A man can do no more than he can. 凡事都应量力而行。
    72. A man cannot spin and reel at the same time. 一心不能二用。
    73. Diamond cuts diamond. 强中自有强中手。
    74. Doing is better than saying. 与其挂在嘴上,不如落实在行动上。
    75. Do it now. 机不可失,时不再来。
    76. It is the unforeseen that always happens. 天有不测风云,人有旦夕祸福。
    77. Don't put off till tomorrow what should be done today.今日事,今日毕。
    78. Do well and have well. 善有善报。
    79. Easy come, easy go. 来也匆匆,去也匆匆。
    80. Every advantage has its disadvantage.有利必有弊。
    81. Every day is not Sunday. 好景不常在。
    82. Every man has his faults. 金无足赤,人无完人。
    83. Every man has his weak side. 人人都有弱点。
    84. Every potter praises hit pot. 王婆卖瓜,自卖自夸。
    85. Experience must be bought. 吃一堑,长一智。
    86. Far from eye, far from heart. 眼不见,心不烦。
    87. First come, first served. 先来后到。
    88. Judge not from appearances.人不可貌相,海不可斗量。
    89. Gold will not buy anything.黄金并非万能。
    90. He laughs best who laughs last.谁笑到最后,谁笑得最好。
    91. He who makes no mistakes makes nothing. 想不犯错误,就一事无成。
    92. Learn not and know not. 不学无术。
    93. It is never too old to learn. 活到老,学到老。
    94. It takes three generations to make a gentleman.十年树木,百年树人。
    95. It is the first step that costs troublesome. 万事开头难。

    干货:利用四六级答题小技巧提分
    英语四六级考试临近,同学们复习时间已经不多。无论复习的是否充分,都需要掌握一些答题的小技巧。方法有时候也可以为你带来高分。希望这篇文章里的答题技巧能够帮助你在考试的时候科学地多拿一些分数~
    重要的事情先说三遍:
    把最新考试大纲完整看5遍并勾重点!
    把最新考试大纲完整看5遍并勾重点!
    把最新考试大纲完整看5遍并勾重点!
    一、做题时间安排技巧
    【题型顺序:作文-听力-收作文&听力卡-阅读理解-翻译】

    1. 写作+听力。这两个是考试硬性规定的时间无法改变,但这里要注意的是如果作文没写完,要立即停笔进行听力考试,如果继续写作文会打乱你的听力考试,导致写作文的时候很慌,听力不知道听到哪里了,最后全盘皆输。
    2. 阅读分值比例大,所以应多花些时间。长篇阅读题量很大,应该保证10分钟;仔细阅读一篇不要要控制在15分钟内,总共两篇,要提高该部分的准确率。这样长篇阅读和仔细阅读大概会花40分钟。
    3. 翻译部分考试大纲建议时间是30分钟,实际上基础差的同学反而用不了这么多时间。建议此类同学可以多花些时间在前面的阅读理解部分,然后用20分钟来进行翻译。
    4. 选词填空分值很低,所以千万不要花超过预期的时间去纠结选择,会做多少是多少。如果剩余时间比较多,就可以多花点时间琢磨这道试题。
    5. 试卷发下来,大家可以按照先易后难的顺序做题,先做自己擅长的部分,每个人的具体情况不同,大家可以根据自己的习惯灵活调整。
      二、写作技巧(考试第一部分)

    【先列思路】一定要认真审题,弄清文章及各段主题,实现由提纲到主题句的转换。可以打一下草稿:摆事实,理清思路,从易于表达,且论证丰富的观点入手,不局限于一种看法或一种表达法和一种句式。
    【模板套路】作文无非为记叙文和说明文,偶尔会考写信图表作文,但这些都归于记叙文和说明文两大类。考试之前针对不同文种和方向提前准备最熟悉写法的作文大框架结构(总分总,总分等),以及一些可以套进去的过渡、衔接句子。这样考试的时候,就已经有一个骨架,我们只需要根据思路把内容填入骨架中。

    【布局美观】具体写作时最好分段来写,各段之间空二至三行,以利于随时增减或删改。而且字迹要工整,卷面要保持清洁,给判卷人一个好印象。
    【最终检查】写完后仔细检查作文中用词、句法方面有无不准确的地方;句式有无变化;句与句之间,段与段之间有无合适的连接及过渡等。
    三、听力技巧(考试第二部分)
    【听前预测】利用听力播放之前的时间,快速浏览一遍题目,这样就可以通过题干和选项中的关键词推测出文章主题。
    【速记信息】在听的时候要快速记笔记,可以在选择项旁尽可能记下文中所提及的人名、地名、各种数据、事实和理由等你认为重要的信息。好的笔记应是对所听内容作出的简要提纲,可以用关键词,也可以用一些自己常用的符号或字母来代替具体的单词,这样可以节省不少时间。
    【重点听音】就是大家在听的时候要注意一些听音重点,一般来说时间变更处,数字处,逻辑关系处这些地方都是大家在听的时候要注意的重点。
    【事实细节题】所考察的细节包括具体时间、地点、主要人物或事件、各种数字等,问题一般为wh-question的形式。 这类题要求我们听到文中出现时间、数字时一定要特别敏感,及时做好笔记。
    【推理推测题】这类题需要对文中的信息进行分析推断,才能作出正确的选择。做这类题时一定要注意:与短文内容一样的答案,不是推断,而且一定要根据短文的观点而不是根据自己的观点来推断。
    四、选词填空(考试第三部分)
    【浏览原文】了解文章的大致内容和选项,做到心中有数。主要关注文章中涉及的人物、事件、地方、原因以及结果。反复出现的词将会是帮助大家掌握文章大致内容的重要线索。
    【标记词性】选项中的15个词是考查的关键,对于熟悉的单词标明词性和词义,不熟悉的单词或者不认识的单词只需标明词性。辨别词性要注意动词分为谓语动词和非谓语动词。非谓语动词包括:动词不定式、动名词、现在分词和过去分词。过去分词有两种可能性(形容词和动词的过去分词), 无法确定时标问号。
    【灵活选词】词性分类之后,回到原文中,根据原文中空格前后的单词或语句确定所填词的词性,然后从分好类的单词中选择出词性、意思、语法都符合要求的最佳选项。我们可以根据一些简单的语法知识确定答案。
    *小技巧:根据空格的前后决定所填词的词性。
      1. 确定空格为名词
      (1)空格前面为冠词、形容词或者及物动词的,空格处应填入名词;
      (2)空格后面是动词的,空格处应填入该动词的主语(名词);
      (3)空格前面是介词的,空格充当介词宾语,应填入名词或动名词。
      2. 确定空格为动词
      (1)空格前面已经有名词/代词作主语,后面又有名词/代词作为动词的宾语,空格处应为及物动词;
      (2)空格前面是名词/代词,后面没考试*大有宾语,空格处应填不及物动词;
      (3)空格前面是名词/代词,后面是副词/介词,空格处应填入不及物动词,与副词/介词构成固定搭配;
      (4)空格前面是名词/代词,后面是形容词,空格处应填入系动词或be动词;
      (5)空格前面有不定式标志to,空格处应填入动词原形;若to是介词,应填入动名词。
      3. 确定空格为形容词
      (1)空格后面为名词,空格处应填入形容词;
      (2)空格前面是副词,空格处应填入形容词;
      (3)空格前面是系动词,空格处应填入形容词作表语。
      4. 确定空格为副词
      (1)空格前面或者后面为动词,空格处应填入副词;
      (2)空格后面是形容词,空格处应填入副词。
    【最后检查】返回原文,检查是否通顺、内在逻辑关系是否连贯,如有问题,需要谨慎地进行微调。
    【附:排除法技巧】
    ① 重点分析动词的时态和语态(注意一般现在时中第三人称单数形式),名词的单复数等。根据上下文时态对应等原则,进一步缩小选择范围。
    ② 选项中出现一组反义词时,有一个是干扰选项。
    ③ 选项中出现代词时,该选项一定不能放在首句。
    ④ 选项中出现一组近义词时,有一个通常是干扰选项,它注重考查的是词汇的精确理解。
    ⑤ 选项为连词时,要特别注意句子间存在的逻辑关系。
    常见的逻辑关系:因果,并列平行,递进,转折,对比,前后意思一致等。
    ⑥ 先易后难,要有全局观。
    做题时先把最有把握的词挑出,然后去除该选项,逐步缩小选择范围。
    五、阅读技巧(考试第四部分)
    【解题模式一】阅读文章—浏览问题—在文章中定位并确定问题答案,这也是我们一直倡导的较为保险的做题方法。但是,因为每个人都有不同的阅读思路和习惯,因此考生可以根据自己的采取情况采取不同的办法。
    【解题模式二】在阅读文章之前先浏览题目的题干,大致了解考查哪些题型以及重点,接着阅读文章,在阅读过程中牢记题目并随时画出重点,之后直接做题。这种阅读做题顺序的优势在于在读文章的过程中带着问题去读,因此对文章相关部分会更加敏感,做题的精确度也更高。但是这种方法因人而异,对一些考生来说可能要花费比较多的时间,因为他们先要读题目,之后读文章,再之后做题时因为不确定又返回原文找答案,反而导致步骤更加繁琐。采用这种方法的考生要注意,一开始只需要阅读题目的题干,千万不要读所有的选项,一来费时间,二来那些干扰选项可能还会影响阅读文章时的正确理解。
    【解题模式三】直接以问题为切入点,并不阅读全文。每做一道问题,回到原文用扫读法寻找答案。这种方法的优点在于节省时间,但缺点在于考生无法对全文有一个宏观的了解,只见树木不见森林,因此在中心思想题上容易出错。此外,对于细节题的把握也有可能因为对文章的不熟悉而定位错误,从而选出错误的答案。这种方法对考生的扫读能力和整体英语阅读能力的要求颇高,考生应当谨慎使用。
    【解题模式四】不读文章,只做题目。这个手段只有在时间紧迫、万不得已的情况下才能采用,此时考生由于没有时间来阅读全文,只好凭猜测和自己平时的积累以及背景知识来勉强做题。一般情况下不建议采用这种做题顺序。
    【附:小技巧】
    每年必考地方是列举处,即有first,sceond,in addition的地方,还有举例与打比方的地方,即有as,such ,for instance等出现的地方,有几个应考规律。
    选项中照抄或似乎照抄原文的一般不是答案,而同义词替换的是正确答案。
    选项中表达意义较具体,也就是句子较长的一般不是答案而概括性的,抽象的是答案。
    选项中有绝对语气词的比如must,never,merely等不是答案而有不十分肯定语气词的是正确答案,比如could,might,possible等。
    六、翻译(考试第五部分)
    【掌握原则】翻译时既要忠实于原文,又要符合汉语的习惯。翻译不可太拘泥,否则很容易因死守原文语言形式而损害了原文思想内容,好的译文应该是形式与内容的统一。能够直译尽量不意译。翻译的过程应该是先理解后表达。
    【具体方法】首先,英文段落的首句一般为topicsentence,然后展开说明。展开的写法有多种,可分可总,可下定义,可同义重复,可以代词复指等。利用这一技巧,先通读全文,便能更好理解文章的意思,把握段与段之间的关系,在翻译时就能在上下文中确定词义,译。正确理解原文后,还要通过适当的翻译技巧用规范的汉语表达出来。
    (1)增词法。根据需要增加一些词语,如名词等。
    (2)减词法。根据汉语习惯,删去一些词。
    (3)肯否表达法。原文为肯定句,译成汉语是为增强修饰效果,可以译为否定句。反之亦然。
    (4)变换法。名词译成动词或动词转译成名词等。
    (5)分合法。一个长句可分成若干部分来译,或者把原文的几个简单句用一个句子表达出来。
    (6)省略法:两种语言由于存在差异,表达时不可能总是对等,经常可以省略一些词和句子成分,如英语中的冠词汉语里没有,译时可以省略。
    最后一定要核对原文是否准确、通顺,还要注意关键词的采分点。

    希望大家考试顺利!

    一、名词解释:4-5个 10分
    1.感觉:人脑对直接作用于感官的客观事物的个别属性的反映。
    2.知觉:人脑对直接作用于感官的客观事物整体的反映。
    3.注意:人的心理活动对一定对象的指向和集中。
    4.记忆:人脑对经历过事物的反映,.是个体对其经验的识记、保持和再现,是信息的编码、储存和提取(信息加工的观点)
    5.能力:是顺利地完成某种活动所必需的人格心理特征
    6.性格:是个体比较稳定的心理特征,是人对现实的态度以及与之相适应的、习惯化的行为方式。
    7.思维:是人脑对客观事物概括的和间接的反映。它反映的是客观事物共同的本质的特征和内在联系。
    8.气质:是指个人生来就具有的心理活动的动力特征。
    9.想象:是人脑对已有表象进行加工改造而创造事物新形象的过程。
    10.情绪:人对待认知内容的一种特殊的态度,包含情绪体验、情绪行为、情绪唤醒和对情绪刺激的认知等复杂成分。
    11.情感:是人对于客观事物是否符合自己的需要而产生的态度体验。
    12.智力:是使人能顺利的解决某种活动所需要的各种认知的能力的有机结合,并以抽象思维为核心。
    13.意志:是个体自觉地确定目的,并根据目的支配、调节行动,克服困难,实现预定目的的心理过程。
    14.记忆的表象:感知过的事物不在面前而在头脑中重现出来的形象。
    二、填空:
    1.心理现象包括:心理活动的过程、人格、心理状态。
    2.人类情绪分为:
    ①激情:是一种迅速强烈爆发而时间短暂的情绪状态。具有爆发性和从动性。
    ②应激:应激是由出乎意料的紧急状况引起的高度紧张的情绪状态。
    ③心境:心境的特点具有弥散性——“喜者见之则喜,忧者见之则忧”
    人类情感种类分为:
    (1)道德感:是关于人的思想、言行等是否符合人的道德需要而产生的社会情感。
    (2)理智感:是客观事物是否符合人的某种认识需要而产生的社会情感。
    (3)美感:客观事物是否符合个人美的需要而产生的社会情感
    3.兴趣的分类:直接兴趣(对事物本身有直接需要而引起的兴趣)和间接兴趣(对事物未来结果有见解而产生的兴趣)
    4.长时记忆几乎没有容量限制,短时记忆的容量一般为7±2组块
    5.思维的基本过程:分析、综合
    其他过程:比较与分类、抽象与概括、系统化与具体化
    6.遗忘曲线表明遗忘规律是:遗忘的进程是不均衡的,在识记的最初阶段遗忘速度很快,以后逐步变慢。
    7.思维的基本特征:间接性、概括性(是指对一类事物的本质和规律性的认识)
    8.意志形成的两大阶段:决策阶段、执行阶段
    9.气质的四大典型类型:多血质、粘液质、胆汁质、抑郁质
    10.能力形成的影响因素:先天素质(遗传素质),后天环境;所受教育;从事的实践活动;主观能动性
    三、单选
    1.知觉的特性 (选择性、整体性、理解性、恒常性)详细见38-40
    2.心理过程包括认知过程(感知、记忆、思维、表象、想象)、情感过程(喜怒哀乐)、意志过程(目的性、克服困难)。
    四、是非题
    1.智力水平与创造力水平成正比。(×)
    2.性格有好坏之分,其职务好坏之分 (√)
    3.做梦是无意想象。(√)
    4.个性是稳定的,所以一成不变。(×)
    5.学习动机越强,就越容易成功。(×)
    6.遗忘一定是有害的。(×)
    7.人的智力水平在18-25岁达到高峰,之后慢慢下降。(× 26-36)
    8.一切有意志的行动都是意志行动。(× 与克服困难相联系)
    9.感觉和直觉都是一样的。(×)
    10.心境是突然爆发的,激烈的情绪状态。(×,微弱而持久)
    11.激情是一种强烈的、维持时间较长的情绪状态。(× 爆发式的,为时短暂的)
    12.记忆的三个基本环节:识记、保持、再认或重现。(√)
    13.第一印象是基于对人的全面了解形成的。(×, 初次相见)
    14.学校心理健康教育的对象是有心理问题的学生。(×)
    15.心理卫生的实质是治疗心理疾病。(× 维护心理健康)
    16.教学就是教师对学生的知识传授。(× )
    17.一个人的气质是先天的,后天的环境不能让其改变。(×)
    18.性格是后天形成的,可以改善的。(√)
    四.心理现象的简单分析:10分不仅仅写现象,还要分析
    1.一朝被蛇咬,十年怕草绳。—————————————————联觉
    2.情人眼里出西施——————————————————————晕轮
    3.江山易改本性难移—————————————————————气质
    4.望梅止渴—————————————————————————联觉
    5.看到白色感受到轻松,看到黑色感到沉重。——————————联觉
    6.广东人迷信—————————————————————-刻板印象
    7.水往低处流————————————————————思维的概括性
    8.终日不学习,期末拿大奖————————————————幻想的空想
    9.房间里充满花香,时间长了,就不香了。————————感觉的适应
    10.孟子:“鱼我所求也,熊掌我亦所求也,两者不可得兼。-—动机斗争的双曲冲突
    11.人才早熟,大器晚成。————————————能力表现早晚的差异
    12.早上学习效果好,记忆效果好————————————没有前摄干扰
    13.晚上睡觉前,背单词效果好—————————————没有倒摄干扰
    14.同产房出生的婴儿哭声大小不同————————————气质的差异
    15.看过的食物,一段时间后,会在脑袋里重现————————记忆表象
    16.建筑工人根据平面图纸,在头脑中在造出楼房的立体形象——再造想象
    17.感时花溅泪,恨别鸟惊心。——消极的心理状态
    18.自古红颜多薄命—————————————————-刻板印象
    19.两足有毛称为畜,四足有毛称为兽—————————-思维的概括性
    20.下雨,水从山上到地面,从小河到大海————————思维的概括性
    21.从没去过开元寺,但看过之后有其形象————————形象记忆
    22.法国人是浪漫的,热衷于追求自由权利的,美国人是遵守程序,讲究经济效益的,德国人是眼睛的,守纪的。——————————刻板印象
    五、简答
    1、分析自己的性格(态度特征)
    答:性格的态度特征
    1、对社会集体他人的态度特征:爱祖国、爱集体、富有同情心、热情、公正、诚实、直率。
    2、对劳动、劳动成果的特征:爱劳动、勤奋、首创性、节俭
    3、对自己的态度性格特征:谦虚、谨慎、自尊、自信、大方
    (性格的结构特征:态度特征、意志特征、情绪特征、理智特征)
    2.哪些因素会影响对问题的解决
    答:影响问题解决的因素包括:问题情境、正负迁移、原型启发、定势、功能固着、动机与情绪状态、个性特征和人际关系8个
    3.哪些因素会影响到学生的注意稳定性?(课堂上影响学生注意稳定性的因素)
    答:影响因素:1)和对象本身的特点有关 2)和活动的内容及活动的方式有关 3)和主体的状态有关
    4.需要的分类、马洛斯需要层次图及其在教学中的作用
    答:需要的分类包括:生理性需要和社会性需要
    按照需要的对象的性质可分为:物质需要和精神需要
    马洛斯需要:
    1)层次图(自下而上):①生理需要②安全需要③归属和爱的需要④尊重的需要⑤自我实现的需要
    2)在教学中的作用:在教学中教师只有努力满足学生的认知需要和学习需要、成就和尊重的需要,才能调动学生听课和做作业的积极性,在思想工作中要重视学生自尊的需要、爱的需要和美的需要,丰富学生的精神生活,提高学生的思想境界。
    3)在教学中的运用:①在教学中满足学生的归属与爱的需要,创设合适的学习环境 ②关心学生基本的生理需要 ③在教学中满足学生尊重的需要 ④注意保护学生的自尊心 ⑤在教学中满足学生的求知需要,精心选择教学内容,巧妙组织教学内容 ⑥在教学中满足学生的成功需要。
    5.根据艾宾浩斯的遗忘规律如何组织学生进行有效的复习
    答:遗忘规律:遗忘的进程是不均衡的,在实际的最初阶段遗忘速度很快,以后逐步减慢。
    记忆的保持效果的制约因素:①时间因素②学习的程度③记忆任务的长久性④记忆内容的不同性质⑤识记后的复习。
    科学的组织学生复习:首先,要及时复习,经常复习;其次,边复习边思考,把知识系统化;再次,在复习中要整理好课堂笔记和读书笔记。
    6.感觉与知觉的区别联系
    答:共同点:他们都是客观事物直接作用于感官器官而在头脑中所产生的对于当前事物的反映,都是对客观事物的直接反映。
    区别:感觉是对事物个别属性的反映;知觉是对事物整体属性的综合反映;
    7.认知过程和情绪、情感过程的联系
    答:情绪和情感与认识不同,认识是对客观事物本身的反映,而情绪和情感是对客观食物与个人需要之间关系的反映
    情绪和情感与认识又有密切的关系:
    首先,认识是产生情绪和情感的基础,只有那些被人认识的客观事物才能引起情绪和情感,从感知来说,只有感知到了某一事物,才能产生相应的情绪情感,人们对事物的认识是逐步深入和不断发展的,这就使得人们对事物所抱的态度和所产生的情绪和情感也相应地发生变化。
    其次,情绪和情感对认识也有影响,这种影响可能是积极的也可能是消极的,积极的情绪和情感可以提高认识活动的积极性,而消极的情绪和情感则会阻滞认识的发展
    8.人的意志是自由的吗?为什么?
    答:意志是自由的,又是不自由的。意志自由只是人对必然的认识和在行为上对必然的驾驭。如果违反客观规律,为所欲为,一意孤行,那么一定会在实践中碰得头破血流,意志和其他心理现象一样,都是人脑对客观现实的反映,最终都是要受客观规律的制约,所以,我们说意志自由是相对的、有条件的,绝对意义上的意志自由是不存在的。
    9.性格与气质的区别与联系。
    ①区别:
    1)气质的可塑性小,变化慢,性格可塑性大,变化较快。
    2)气质表现的范围狭窄,局限于心理活动的强度、速度等方面,而性格表现范围广泛。
    3)气质受先天因素的影响较大,比较稳定;而性格受后天因素的影响较大,比气质容易改变。
    4)气质无好坏之分,而性格有好、坏、善、恶之分。
    ②联系:
    1)气质对性格的影响:气质影响性格的表现方式;气质影响性格形成和发展的速度和动态
    2)性格对气质的影响:性格可以在一定程度上掩盖或改造气质。
    10.什么是挫折,为什么会产生挫折,如何面对挫折
    答:挫折:是指个体在有目的的活动中,由于遇到障碍或干扰,致使个人动机不能实现,需要不能满足时的情绪状态。
    产生的原因:①客观原因:自然界及社会给予个人的干扰与限制。②主观原因:个人原因与造成的干扰与限制。
    对待挫折的具体做法:1)冷静地接受挫折,积极的看待挫折 2)认真分析挫折原因,有针对性地调整自己,争取新的成功,3)寻求他人的帮助,增强自我抵御挫折的力量
    挫折的自我调节:1)正确认识挫折,客观分析挫折的原因。2)学习运用心理防御方式,减轻心理压力。
    3)调节报复水平。4)改善挫折情境。
    论述题(2题)
    1、学习心理学的意义(师范生)
    答:学好心理学对于未来的人民教师具有重要的理论意义和时间意义。
    第一、学习心理学有助于学好教育科学理论,心理学、教育学、学科教育学和教育实习是师范生的四门公共必修课,心理学作为先行课,要为其它三门课打好理论基础。不学好心理学基础理论,就无法理解教育改革理论,更无法参加教改实践。
    第二、学好心理学有助于建立科学世界观。学好心理学有助于正确的理解科学世界观的基本命题,正确处理意识与物质的关系,使自己的思想和行动始终有一个正确的方向。
    第三、学好心理学,有助于搞好教学工作。好心理学,可以运用注意、观察、记忆等规律帮助学生更好的进行学习和复习,大大的提高教学效率,产生较好的教学效果。
    第四、有助于做好思想工作,学好心理学有助于提高思想工作的效率。
    第五、有助于自我意识的发展,学习心理学有助于教师发展学生的自我评价等能力,提高学生学习的自主性、自觉性、独立性。
    第六、有助于掌握好学习规律、学习方法、学习策略。

    2.结合实际,论述怎样把握可能性
    答:可能性是现实事物所包含的预示事物发展前途的种种趋势。相对于现实来说,是潜在的尚未实现的东西,当某种事物或现象还没有成为现实之前,只是某种可能。可能的情况比较复杂,一般来说,我们要首先区分可能与不可能,当我们说某以实物和现象有产生的可能是指这一事物和现象有某种客观的依据和条件,而不可能是指某一事物和现象的产生没有任何依据和条件,因而是永远不能实现的东西。当然,不可能也不是都是绝对的,有些在现在条件下不可能的东西在新的条件下会成为可能的,所以不可能又分为“绝对的和相对的”。
    可能又有现实的和抽象的(非现实)之分,现实的可能是指在现实中有充分根据,因而在目前就可以实现的可能,抽象的可能是在现实缺乏充分根据,因而在当前条件下不能实现的可能。
    第三区分好的可能和坏的可能,可能不明单一的,有着各种可能,其中有着两种相反的可能,这就是好的可能与坏的可能,我们要争取好的可能,避免坏的可能
    可能性与现实性的关系也是对立统一的关系;两者具有确定的区别,可能着眼与未来,现实着眼于现在
    辩证统一,相互依存,相互转化
    可能包含于现实之中,是没有展开的,没有实现的现实,现实则是已经展开,已经实现的可能,同时又孕育着新的可能
    现实的发展是产生可能性,可能性有不断变成现实的过程
    因此,我们应立足现实分析可能性,树立远大的理想
    试题
    五、选择题:本题共13个小题;每小题2分;共26分。在每小题给出的四个选项中;只有一项是符合题目要求的;把所有选项前的字母填在题后的括号内。
    23.下列选项中;哪项完整地表达了心理学的研究对象?
    A.心理过程及其规律B.情绪人格及其规律C.生理现象及其规律D.心理现象及其规律
    24.心理现象的产生方式是()
    A.精神活动B.反射活动C.意识活动D.技能活动
    25.学生阅读时常使用画重点线的策略;这是利用了知觉的哪一种基本特性?()
    A.选择性B.理解性C.整体性D.恒常性
    26.一个较长的学习内容;首尾部分记忆效果好;中间部分遗忘较多;这是受下列哪种选项因素的干扰?
    A.消退和干扰抑制B.倒摄和干扰抑制C.前摄和消退抑制D.前摄和倒摄抑制
    27.高级神经活动类型中;“强——平衡——不灵活”型与下列哪种气质类型相对应?
    ()
    A.多血质B.胆汁质C.粘液质D.抑郁质
    28.下列哪种选项属于一般能力的范畴?()
    A.记忆能力B.创造能力C.运动能力D.社交能力
    29.注意的两种最基本的特性是()
    A.指向性与选择性B.指向性与集中性C.指向性与分散性D.集中性与紧张性
    30.“人逢喜事精神爽”;这是受人的下列哪种情绪影响所致?()
    A.激情B.心境C.热情D.应激
    31.教师在直观教学时;应用“变式”方法的目的在于()
    A.激发兴趣B.引起注意C.丰富想像力D.分化概念
    32.个人的观念与行为由于群体的引导或压力;而向与大多数人相一致的方向变化的现象;称为()
    A.从众B.依从C.服从D.遵从
    33.提出把人格特质分为共同特质与个人特质的心理学家是()
    A.卡特尔B.奥尔波特C.霍兰德D.斯坦伯格
    34.加德纳提出的智力理论是()
    A.智力二因素论B.智力结构论C.智力多元论D.智力三元论
    35.下列哪种方法属于精神分析法?()
    A.系统脱敏法B.支持疗法C.宣泄疗法D.认知作业法
    六、填空题:本大题共5个小题;共10个空;每空1分;共10分。把答案填在题中横线上。
    36.思维的过程包括分析与综合、、、系统化与具体化。
    37.人的情绪是以为中介的反映形式;情绪的最重要的外部指标是。
    38.平时人们所说的“一心二用”是指注意品质的特性。其基本条件是;同时进行的两种活动中必须有一种是的。
    39.智力技能形成可分为三个阶段:原型定向、、。
    40.根据马斯洛的需要层次理论;人类由低到高的五种基本需要是:生理需要、安全需要、归属和爱的需要、的需要和的需要。
    七、简答题:本大题共3个小题;每小题8分;共24分。
    41.能力与知识、技能的关系。
    42.简述助人行为的促进策略。
    43.如何培养创造性思维?
    八、论述题:本题满分15分。
    44.结合教育教学实际并运用有关动机理论;分析如何激发学生的学习动机?
    参考答案
    五、选择题
    23.D24.B25.A26.D27.C28.A29.B
    30.B31.D32.A33.B34.C35.C
    六、填空题
    36.比较抽象与概括 37.需要面部表情 38.分配自动化
    39.原型操作原型内化 40.尊重自我实现
    七、简答题答案要点
    41.(1)能力与知识、技能的联系:
    ①知识、技能是能力形成的基础;并推动能力的发展;
    ②能力制约知识、技能的掌握水平;影响知识、技能的学习进度。
    (2)能力与知识、技能的区别:
    ①知识是认知经验的概括;技能是活动方式的概括;能力是心理水平的概括;
    ②知识、技能的掌握并不必然导致能力的发展;知识、技能的掌握只有达到熟练程度;通过广泛迁移;才能促进能力的发展。
    42.(1)增强责任明确性与人际相互作用;
    (2)提供亲社会行为榜样;
    (3)将助人行为归因于利他动机;
    (4)运用社会影响策略;
    (5)进行助人行为的社会实践。
    43.(1)激发好奇心和求知欲;培养创造性动机;
    (2)培养发散思维与集中思维相结合的能力;
    (3)培养与发展学生的直觉思维能力;
    (4)进行创造性的活动;培养创造性人格。
    八、论述题答案要点
    44.(具体内容参见第七章第三节)
    (1)阐述学习动机理论。可以详细阐述一种学习动机理论;也可以简述多种学习动机理论。
    (2)运用所阐述的理论提出激发学生学习动机的
    如何教育(胆汁质、粘液质、多血质、抑郁质)的学生